This lesson looks at the fundamental principle that atomic oxygen is the limiting factor for the release of carbon dioxide in metabolism, and when we don't have enough we take it from water. This will become very relevant when we cover fats versus carbohydrates, because they consume different amounts of water and release different amounts of carbon dioxide for this very reason. That, in turn, relates to a number of health endpoints such as the functions of vitamin K and biotin, delivery of oxygen to tissues, and the stress placed on the lungs during breathing.

Here, we look at the principle in the citric acid cycle. In doing so, we see that, while textbooks only point to two water molecules consumed, a third water molecule is irreversibly consumed to donate oxygen to the cycle via phosphate.

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