Chris Masterjohn, PhD shares an ultimate resource of Vitamin K2

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You can visit the new page here:

The Ultimate Vitamin K2 Resource

The searchable database can be found below.


















































The Database: Search for the Vitamin K2 Contents of Foods

Here’s the icing on the cake. We scoured the literature for data on the K2 contents of foods and found many publications that haven’t been included in databases elsewhere. There are almost 200 foods included. You can search by keyword, or you can submit a blank search to browse through everything. You can pick a food category and search it by keyword or submit a blank search to browse through just the foods in that category. Every food entry gives you the opportunity to click for more details, including a breakdown of its different vitamin K forms and the reference from which the data comes. Have fun searching!

Vitamin K2 Advanced Search Form


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  1. Hi Chris, I have osteoporosis, I am looking for a cheese that is high in MK-7, I am already supplementing with MK-4, I am taking 45mcg, I am sensitive to all fermented foods and would like to eat some cheese to get my MK-7, could you please help me? Thank you Lori

    1. No it does not kill the K2… usually high heat and other manipulations can do so, for example, in most cod liver oils. Consider that cheese is a fairy good source of K2 (MK-4) but it also contains some higher chain Mk’s (not-7_

      some consume them raw and raw egg yolks from pastured chickens are the ultimate in nutrients; but they must be grown by a farmer you know and trust. Otherwise there may be risk of salmonella.

  2. I ordered a vitacost brand of vitamin K2 MK7 with nattokinase. It stayed in the mailbox for the entire day at 99° temperatures outside. Do you think that this would damage the supplement?

  3. Hello – I recently read an article about taking vitamin K supplements several hours apart from vitamin D supplements to avoid nutrient competition. Has anyone heard of this? I wish there was a test for vitamin K levels to check this out. I take most of my vitamin D along with other fat-soluble vitamins (including K) and my main meal, and my vitamin D levels are good, i.e. apparently not affected by taking it together with K, but do not know my vitamin K level to know if that is being affected.

    1. I have a supplement where the D3 and K2 are in the same capsule. There is not a direct test for K2. It is hard to take too much K2, and the supplementation I have read is 180 mcg a day. You can get k2 from fermented foods. If you take them with some oil even fish oil , I think you are just fine to take together.

  4. I really enjoyed the Vitamin K podcast, this article, and the searchable database. I was at first excited to see that natural emu oil appeared to be a great natural source of Vitamin K because I thought I could pop a couple of emu oil pills and be good. Then I considered that 50 g of emu oil is a lot harder to consume daily than 50 g of pork sausage, so I think I’ll try to get a combination, along with green leafies. Although kind of nasty to hear your insight about why pork may have higher MK-10 levels than other meat. Yuck. I agree – it would be interesting to hear if humanely-raised pigs in more spacious locations would have lower MK-10 levels.

    Super cool to learn that biotin and Vitamin K are the only vitamins that handle carboxylation.

    Also very interesting to hear that MK-4 helps turn off cancer-promoting genes and turn on sex-hormone related genes. Also interesting that statins downregulate the conversion of K1 to MK-4, which implies that statins can increase our cancer risk and decrease our sex hormone production. Considering also statin’s downregulation of the building blocks that make sex hormones, that’s a double whammy effect of statins having a potential negative impact on sex hormone production.

    I loved learning from your site and a research article that Matrix GLA protein (MGP), is the most potent inhibitor of tissue calcification and is activated through 1) phosphorylation and 2) carboxylation, and the carboxylation status is the result of vitamin K levels. So interesting to realize that adequate Vitamin K levels help solve two common problems: soft tissue calcification and osteoporosis.

    Finally, I’m a big fan of Weston Price, so fun to learn more about Activator X. Thanks so much for all your research!

  5. Hi, Great info. I’d like to add to the supplement list a review of rnareset’s D3 K2. Thanks. Dr. Dean wrote The Magnesium Miracle and has formulated her own high quality supplement line. Thanks.

  6. Interested in D3 and calcium and K2. As an older female….BUT…I have Alpha Gal Syndrome…everything that goes into my body must be mammal free…including by products

  7. My understanding is that pantaprozole interferes with absorption of K2. Thus one should take K2 before taking pantaprozole which takes about 30 minutes to take effect.. Is this correct? .Any other comments re K2 and pantaprozole will be appreciated.

  8. I have been following this Activator X/vitamin K2 business ever since I read Price’s book about 30 years ago and your work identifying it as K2 in 2007 and Rheume-Blue’s book. I am a retired research biochemist with a background in blood clotting (I purified and characterized several of the vitamin K dependent clotting factors and their inhibitors) and also worked in the biotech industry developing viral diagnostics and vaccines using recombinant proteins. I wish that there were (more) studies identifying all of the places in the body where the various vitamin K2 types partition as well as their circulating lifetimes/halflives. I know K4 does get into the brain and I remember Price suggested that it can be found in the saliva. But it would be very useful to know if there is/are other organs that it has a preference for.

  9. I tried k2 mk7 sports research and had chest pain. I’m going to try k2 from natto supplement. Thank you for guide for k2

      1. our product (vK2) contains both MK4 and MK7. Unlike most other formulas our ingredients are pharmaceutical grade (with NO Chinese sourced ingredients and with with a VERY high percent of the bioactive “trans” form).

  10. Hello Mr. Master John,
    I have come upon a vitamin K supplement that isn’t into your list and looks intriguing! It is called Koncentrated K and contains high dosage MK-1, MK-4, MK-7 and astaxanthin. Being a WAP member and follower, I’m hesitant taking it without knowing more about it. The price is quite appealing. I do eat butter oil, natto, cheese and dessicated organ tablets along with astaxanthin, which of course isn’t cheap. I’d so appreciate it your input on this product
    Thank you so much

    1. I’m no expert on anything, just a layman; I’ll do what I can. I’ve been taking Kon-K for a year or two. I can assure you it’s a legitimate product and is safe. Whether it actually does anything is like all the other supplements I take–I can only hope something good metabolically is happening in my body.

      The people at Innovix Labs will tell you that the MK-4 dosage is way too high without benefit, and maybe the MK-7 dosage as well. I spoke with the man at Kon-K about the astaxanthin dosage being low compared to a recommended dosage of 12mg (I think is the number) by True Health, and he gave me a technical answer I didn’t understand.

      Your comment way below imbedded in comments from 2016 probably won’t be seen by many people. And Chris Masterjohn doesn’t seem to be active here anymore, so don’t expect to hear from him. Finally, clicking on the link in the email informing me of new comments here about managing my subscription now results in a page-not-found message. Not sure if this website is a “going concern” anymore.

      Good luck.

    2. Koncentrated K is 50%/50% trans/cis so the active dosage is inflated. Trans (active form) should be in the high 90s. Also, they claim natural source for the MK4. Not possible.

  11. Whoa. Over 1200 comments, I can’t possibly find the answer I’m looking for, lol.

    I have a D3/K2 liquid supplement I bought because calcium needs both for optimal absorption. Unless you said otherwise and I missed it.

    Now I’m not sure I was providing enough dietary fat at the same time the D3/K2 was taken. I know fat is needed. I didn’t know how much until your article. Can D3/K2 be taken (with fat) separately from calcium? As long as they’re in the same day, it’s okay? Or do they all need to be in the same meal?

    1. It is better in the same meal. It is better to talk D3/K2 with a meal that has some fat. It can be whole greek yogurt.

  12. Is consuming Natto not recommended for individuals with an increased prothrombin gene mutation or would the fibrinolytic aspect balance out the K2 increased prothrombin?

  13. Rarely find informative articles like this. Everyone ends up spending a lot of money on diseases nowadays. So better we know what actually makes us ill and try to avoid unnecessary things from our healthy life.

  14. This was really good, I did study K2, and you gave so much more information on it all, Im glad to see my diet is spot on and I do take d3 k2. I also love it when an expert like you dont poo poo good healthy animal fats. I think that reducing your good fat intake is a disaster for your health

  15. How long is Thorne k2 likely to last in fridge?
    To have 1c per day it needs to last something like 20 years.

    1. I would think that is an expiration on the bottle. I would not go much beyond that because of the oxidation of K2. In the fridge. Are there other people in the family you can share with?

  16. when i click on; “Carson Labs Vitamin K2 MK-7” link, at the beginning of the paragraph, it takes me to iHERB instead.

    1. Thank you for your comment! I found your video very informative!!! I’ll link it for others below. My husband has a huge jaw cyst (silver dollar) that will need to be decompressed with a drain over the course of a year while hopefully regrowing his jaw bone back. Right now it is eggshell thin. I bought the designs for health D supreme that has D3K1/K2/ GG. Would you recommend this or following the osteoporosis protocol? He’s 42.

  17. Thanks for such an informative document. I had been trying to find something like this. I have been living a pro metabolic lifestyle with food and avoiding stress, toxin, and following Dr Ray Peat. It had been suggested to take asprin daily as a anti inflammatory, to assist with health especially in our current times. I was also advised to take vitamin k with the asprin to assist with the blood thinning. Do you have any information on this? I bought Health Natura True K2 which has K2-Mk4 in mct oil, 1mg per drop. I am still trying to figure out how much to take with the asprin. I’m having trouble finding information that is in laments terms 😊 thanks again

  18. I think more attention should be paid to K1 when it comes to coronary artery calcification:

    “Research suggests that vitamin K1 supplementation does not have cardiovascular benefit in healthy people, but, in people with existing coronary artery calcification, it may help slow progression. For example, one study in Boston showed that people with pre-existing coronary artery calcification who took a multivitamin including vitamin K1 for three years had 6% less progression of calcification than those who received the multivitamin without K1. However, among people without pre-existing calcification, an equal percentage developed calcification regardless of whether or not they received vitamin K1 (Shea, Am J Clin Nutr 2009). A study in Australia investigated the effects of vitamin K1 supplementation in men and women (average age 66) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and moderate coronary artery calcification, half of whom were also given the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine (which can reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in people with coronary artery disease). The study found that 10 mg of vitamin K1 taken once daily for three months decreased the risk of developing new calcified lesions in the coronary arteries and aorta, respectively, by 65% and 73% compared to placebo. These decreases were similar for those taking or not taking colchicine (Bellinge, Am J Clin Nutr 2021).”

  19. Any information or thoughts on K for DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis)? Also, NAFLD with multiple liver cysts?

    If so, what forms would be most beneficial?

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    1. The main source of K2 in this study was hard cheese, which is high in saturated fat. Saturated fat has been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk, so unfortunately this introduces a confounding variable that is proportional to the variable of interest (K2), making the study’s association difficult to interpret.

      1. Howard, that is a persistent and debunked myth lingering from a very flawed study the 50’s. The truth is that saturated fats are the healthiest fats . . .it is the vegetable/seeds fats that are very harmful . . . and of course trans fats are the worst things you could put in your body

  21. Hi Chris!!

    I’m pretty new to all of this but I’m working on my dental gum health and am trying to incorporate more ADK vitamins into my mostly carnivore diet. I’m doing my best with food but I’m trying to supplement with Rosita Cod liver oil and was wondering what you think of Green Pastures x-factor High vitamin butter oil? Also, any thoughts on K2 dosages for children? Thanks!

  22. A great resource and so well set out, thank you for making it available.
    I remain unclear though on the bodies synergy between D3 and K2. Does K2 rob the body of D3 or otherwise affect absorption of D3. Can they both be taken together? I see that some of your recommended supplements contain both D3 and K2 which would suggest there is no conflict between the two vitamins?

  23. Thank you,. This is the most explicit in depth article I have seen
    Would you be able to expand on the origin of the various ‘High Dose MK4 supplements’ and whether they are natural, synthetic or synthetic/bio-identical ?

  24. I need to take K2 MK7 as I have high level osteopenia but I also take an 81 mg aspirin a day as the hole in the heart that usually closes at birth left a very small hole. None of my doctors can tell me if there is risk in taking K2 MK7 while also taking low dose aspirin. Help!

    1. Kim, I assume the aspirin you take is to counter blood clotting. That being the case, Vitamin K2 would not be contraindicated, as it has nothing to do with blood clotting (vitamin K1 would be contraindicated).

  25. I am 65 and have osteoporosis. In December 2019 I broke a vertebrae. That wasn’t diagnosed until the following February, which led to the OP diagnosis in March, followed of course by the pandemic. Tried Fosomax for 4 weeks. Never again. Since then I’ve used a natural approach, diet exercise and supplements, mixed results. I’ve started having really bad reflux this past year. I just now realize the supplements may have chick peas in them, which I have reacted to quite severely in the past. So now I’m taking a break from any supplements with K-2. Any suggestions? Thank you.

  26. Hello! I read with interest your information on vitamin K in it’s myriad forms, and I think it is helpful, thank you very much! I am looking for a dose to treat a patient with recurring kidney stones. If that is a higher dose than the 100-200mcg/day, how long should the higher dose be maintained?

  27. What do you think of HumanN D3.K2 supplement. I just ordered 1 jar but concerned its not what I need.

  28. I had Pulmonary Sarcoidosis in the past and it is now in remission (after 2.5 years). I was advised by my pulmonologist to not take Vitamin D because of this illness as it can create hypercalcimia. When I read about K2, it’s always in conjunction with D3. My question is, can I take K2 alone without taking Vit D3?

  29. Would you please help me with this confusing information about Vit. K, 1 and 2? One nutrition website I saw recently (run by a chemist marketing her own line of supplements) says they won’t sell a vit. d supplement with vit k added, because the two together will increase the amount of calcium in the body and vitamin k thickens the blood, because of the clotting factor. Another forum of hypothroid sufferers were sharing with each other that one of them was supplementing with K and she got a clot in her right coronary artery. Her cardiologist blamed the vit K. She said, “If you look it up you will find any form vitamin K causes clotting. It increases the fibrinogen level in your body and if you are prone to clotting it can be dangerous. I would suggest having your fibrinogen level checked. Mine was high with taking the K2..” After reading this, I asked a pharmacist about vit. K and he said he “doesn’t like it, because it thins the blood” (I guess he means it interferes with people on blood thinners).

    Would you please clarify these confusing and contradictory claims? Clotting? Thinning? Are any of them at least partly true? I’ve been taking a D supplement with vit. K2, but it is only 10 mcg per capsule. I’ve been wanting to increase to at least 100 mcg, but these contradictory notions made me pause. Thank you very much.

    1. Kristen, I can certainly understand you being confused, as there is so much conflicting “info” out there.
      One point, I hope to clarify is that, vitamin k1 is involved in blood clotting not vitamin K2. Another point I want to make is that the popular chemist who has her own vitamin line says she won’t market a D3 supplement with added K vitamins, because “it would increase the amount of calcium”, it would “thicken blood”, “cause kidney stones”, Is not correct.

      I suggest you take a look at out site (yes we sell our own Vitamin K2 product too)

      I think you will find lots of very useful info

  30. I found your site after becoming confused by lots of conflicting information about vit. D3 supplementation along with Vit. k2 MK7. I wrote out my questions and posted my comment, when I wanted to add another comment correcting something I said. Then my first comment, being moderated, had disappeared. I’m sorry.

  31. I found your site today because I was trying to resolve the confusion I have now about vit.K after reading so many contrasting opinions and information. I am chronically low in vit. d, so I had been supplementing with a 500 iu D3 / 10 mcg K2 mk7 capsule. Trying to understand how the two work together, and interested in preventing calcium from ending up in my arteries, I was about to increase my K2 to 100 mcg, when I found a few different sites saying contrary info. A popular chemist who has her own vitamin line says she won’t market a D3 supplement with added K vitamins, because “it would increase the amount of calcium”, it would “thicken blood”, “cause kidney stones”, etc. “you only need D to increase D”. A thyroid forum had several people sharing that vitamin k causes blood clots, because of fibrinogen levels. Another author talked about carboxylating MGP. A Portugese doctor treating patients with high dose Vit. D therapy and vit. K stipulates avoiding all calcium foods while taking vit. D and closely monitoring calcium levels with blood and urine tests… Others wrote horror stories about damaging their kidneys from high doeses of vit. d, but they didn’t mention if they had taken vit. k.. I am paralyzed now and afraid to eat or take a supplement. Was any of the above true? How can I know? Every person who writes on the internet writes with authority yet completely contradict each other.
    When doctors or nutritionists advised me to supplement with vit. D, most of them said nothing about K, and other than measuring my D levels to see if the supplementation had worked to improve that level, none of them told me to monitor calcium levels.

    I would dearly appreciate some clarity here. Thank you.

    1. Thank you for all the challenging questions. Yes, between promotion of commercial vitamins, medical opposition to vitamin use, and simplistic thinking there is more confusion over the science of the vitamin K & K2 forms than just stupidity, it is driven at times by diverging fiscal interests. You literally have to be a better scientist than the people you are reading or talking to. You have my every compassion in this.
      First, vitamin supplements are safe. Most years NO deaths are accorded to vitamins in toxicology data reports with vitamins being ten times safer than the risk of being hit by lightening and a thousand times safer than taking acetomeniphen.
      The medical references on vitamin D are blazingly unscientific with Institute Of Medicine pronouncements of 600 IU daily doses being without scientific credit when compared with calculated 8895 IU and 9122 IU daily doses from the SAME Institute Of Medicine data that were published in two peer reviewed Journals. The IOM has been asked multiple times to review their numbers by research scientists. If you get your blood level for vitamin D tested, aim for a 50 to 70 ng/ml blood level for normal health, up to 200 ng/ml for reducing autoimmune symptoms. Generally start with the 10,000 IU and then adjust as needed. Doses under 30,000 IU are generally safe especially if some Retinol vitamin A is taken as low Retinol is a cause of kidney stones, not vitamin D. Doses above 30,000 IU should be managed by a physician who is trained in the Coimbra Protocol for high dose vitamin D used to suppress autoimmune conditions.
      Cofactors that work with vitamin D are 200-600 mg magnesium, 12-30 mg boron, 15,000 IU Retinol vitamin A, 20-30 mg zinc, and MK4 vitamin K2.
      There is NO optimal dose of vitamins D and K2. Why? Personal doses of vitamin D vary by a factor of ten, making proportioning of the K2 impossible. The need for vitamin K2 varies from zero to 45 mg a day for serious cases of artery calcification and bone loss. The body makes MK4 vitamin K2 by converting vitamin K1 with MK4 production falling off with age. Those under 30 don’t need MK4 unless they are medical cases, but above 40 or 50 years an MK4 supplement is very useful. The MK7 form of vitamin K2 is made by bacteria, not the human body so we are badly adapted to use MK7 and it is much less effective than the MK4 vitamin K2 which is identical to what all animals make. The 100 mcg of MK7 vitamin K2 is ok as long as you are not part of the 10% of people who get anxiety, sleeplessness, and a thumping heart beat from taking it. Doses of the MK4 form are 1 to 5 mg for healthy people. The MK4 helps the body make its Matrix GLA protein work to remove calcification from the arteries and makes the Calcitonin with to rebuild bones with more tissue strength and better microstructure.
      Taking MK4 and MK7 is completely safe, no extra clotting has been reported at up to 135 mg per day. The same for regular vitamin K, it can potentiate fibrogen clotting protein up to 100%, but no increase past 100% is possible.
      For information on taking calcium, only 500 to 800 mg of calcium is needed with higher blood levels of vitamin D. The Coimbra Protocol calls for strong calcium reductions but only at medically high vitamin D intakes.
      So now you know that doctors have only a few hours of nutritional training and much of that is obsolete or even unscientific in places. Look up Life Extension magazine which works hard to get good references in its articles and treats Nutrition with the good science it deserves. Dr Andrew Saul at is a good source as is vitamin D wiki.

      1. Hi David, your reply is by far the best and easiest to understand. I too have been confused about what to do about taking Vit D and K2. Thank you again.
        Presently, I am taking Synergy from Pure Encapsulations.
        It has K1 500 mcg, K2- 1000 mcg MK-4, MK-7. 45 mcg and the mfr just added to this formula D3 1000 in it.
        I am also taking Dr. Mercola’s Vit D3, 1000.
        So a total of 2,000 of Vit D3.
        I am curious do you have a K2 that you may prefer and can suggest? I always try to look for clean vitamins with good fillers or no fillers.
        I have High Fibrinogen, which was over 600, and brought down to 346 with taking Inflamazyme.
        Your help would be greatly appreciated.
        Thank you so much,

      2. This comment is a general one for this topic and not necessarily directed at David. I interjected here only because I couldn’t figure out where/how to post an independent post on this page, although there is a statement by David as well as others that I wanted to comment to and seek alternate opinions of, specifically regarding to mk7 being converted to mk4 and one other note.
        Per a number of as well as this one ( they state that mk7 is indeed converted to mk4 and that mk4 supplementation had no effect or increase in blood levels of mk4. This article ( also directly mentions MenaQ7 which is supposed to be a 100 percent Trans form of K2 and derived from chickpeas vs natto eliminating any soy or Cis form concerns. It’s also been noted several places that mk4 is the form most used and accessible by the bacteria h.pylori and that those with h.pylori overgrowth would do best not to use mk4.
        I, like many others am very confused by all of this and curious if mk7 actually causes palpitations and insomnia or are those due to other factors and where is the scientific data vs the subjective users’ statements? There is so much speculation and so many financially incentivised and biased articles that I tend to lend my belief to the scientific based organizations and data.

  32. There’s a warning to avoid K2 supplements if on anti-coagulants, specifically cumadin/warfarin, but I was unable to find any specifics with respect to Apixaban/Eliquis. which is an anti-coagulant but works differently. (I take it for paroxysmal AFib.) I stated taking the one Innovix 100/500 soft gel 10 days before a PT-INR test and the result was within range (14.3 sec PT and 1.1 INR), but do not know if that means K@ is safe for it. I assume the concern is that K@ might adversely affect coagulation times or is there some other concern?. Can you point me to any specifics for Eliquis and K2? (My nutritionist and my nephrologist are unfamiliar with K2..) I see my cardiologist on 3/19 and would like to discuss. Also regarding the Innovix, your recommendation implies taking one pill every 3 days. to get to your recommended standard daily amount. With this regimen, do both MK’s linger long enough to last three days?

  33. Jarrow Formulas makes the MK-7 softgels in 180 mcg per softgel (MCT and olive oil) as well.
    I’m getting those for my mom, who seems to have a severe K2 deficiency at present since taking calcium is apparently giving her hypercalcemia where she can’t keep her balance when walking.

    some other interesting options to consider are
    Doctor’s Best Natural Vitamin K2 Mena Q7® plus D3 — 180 mcg – 60 Veggie Caps (1000 IU D3 + 180 MK-7)


    TrueVantage Vitamin k2 MK-7 Supplement 180mcg (which is cheaper but comes in dry capsules)

    am trying to find out more about sourcing and form of the MK-7 in Bronson Vitamin K2 (100 mcg MK-7)

    Lastly, if you need extra D3 and prefer liquid drops (I sure do, except maybe for travel, swallowing lots of pills gets tiresome) there’s
    NOW Supplements, Liquid D-3 & MK-7 with 2,500 IU Vitamin D-3 & 100 mcg Vitamin K-2 per 5 drops

    [another vendor, Protocol for Life Balance, offers an identical product at slightly higher price in Fullscript (if you’re a Masterpass subscriber)]

    Taking 5 drops of that plus a drop of the Thorne D/K2 (with MK-4) provides 200 mcg of K2/day + 3,000 IU of D3, which should be perfect for my needs and provides half of the K2 as MK-4 and half as MK-7.

    1. none of the products in those links contain BOTH mk7 and Mk4.

      I would suggest vK2, which contains pharmaceutical grade MK4 (5mg) and MK7 (100mcg).

    2. Margaret, I apologise for my seemingly late reply to this post of yours, as it was from Feb, 2021, and just appeared in my mailbox, being now Sept. 2021.

      You wrote “I’m getting those for my mom, who seems to have a severe K2 deficiency at present since taking calcium is apparently giving her hypercalcemia where she can’t keep her balance when walking. ” referring to a form/product of k2 in that post. Since I don’t know the actual context for your comment, please forgive me if I’ve missed any details previously or consequently presented about your mother.

      FIrst, if I were you, I’d ask, (not a doctor or even as medical professional), has your mother’s hypercalcemia been documented as consistently over a level of 10 mg/dl for serum blood calcium, assuming that she is at least 40 years old? If this is the case, then I’d recommend looking at websites about hyperparathryoidism. parathyroid dot com is comprehensive.

      Since excess vitamin d has been known to boost calcium levels too high in some people (perhaps vitamin k2 deficient, but not necessarily!), you’d want to rule that out also (vitamin d being known to enhance absorption of calcium from our guts) as a possibility. I’d carefully the assumption that her problem is a deficiency of vitamin k2 (although a deficiency might be true, esp. if much older and with some issues in converting vitamin k1 into vitamin k2, as is probably more common than accepted due to high levels of potential environmental complicators such as glyphosates that are difficult if not impossible to measure in our bodies and our food and water, and yet might have a detrimental impact on the necessary bacteria in our bodies, and other nutritional factors that could interfere with that conversion).

      If the usage of vitamin k2 has reversed your mothers hypercalcemia, please let us know.

  34. I make sourdough bread and natto at home but my kids won’t touch the the natto. Might it be possible to mix some natto into the dough, let it ferment/prove and the bacteria replicate (usually I prove for 8-12h) and then bake it? Would the K2 be destroyed by baking?

  35. also it’s “YoungGlo Research” not “Young Life Research” and while those are the cheapest per mcg of MK-7 when bought in 4-packs and the other brands aren’t on sale, I don’t like that it comes in a translucent blue bottle, when because K2 is very light-sensitive it should be packaged in an amber or opaque bottle.

    1. I am pretty confused. In your opinion what brands of K2 have the best balance? I am most concerned with quality and taking the right balance of MK4 & Mk 7. I especially take it for my bones. I was taking the Synergy K, but now I will stop after you explained why it is not a good balance and that K1 is not suggested. I truly appreciate your help.

      1. Aside from vK2 containing an optimal amount of both MK4 and Mk7, it is also pharmaceutical grade, characterized by its yellow color. Unlike most other vitamin K2 products, the ingredients for vK2 are NOT sourced from China (they come from Europe).

      2. Janel, please search for the section above titled “The Three Best Vitamin K2 Supplements”. At the bottom of that section you’ll see a green outline button thingy with lighter green print “Click here for a comprehensive review of supplements” [I wish that Chris would make these solid color with white lettering, so that these are easier to see/read and harder to miss].

        That section will expand to show a bunch of additional text. Read what Chris has to say about the Life Extension Vitamin K supplement in that expanded section and too much K possibly overtaxing the antioxidant system.

        Also look at the section titled “Hypothetical Side Effects of High Doses” and read the expansion/detailed explanation for that. Then you will understand.

        The Synergy supplement might be good for someone who won’t eat many green and yellow vegetables and doesn’t get much vitamin K1. That’s probably not you. I logged all the foods I eat into the daily diary in the Cronometer app, and discovered that on average, I get more than enough K1 from my diet (the app doesn’t break it down between the two types of K, but I know that generally speaking except for natto the plant foods are providing K1 and the animal foods are providing K2). I do eat natto, but getting the organic natto is expensive and I don’t eat enough animal food (and am on a diet that restricts dairy for the time being), hence I’ve chosen to get much of my K2 from supplements and will plan to continue to supplement MK-7 even after I hopefully can resume eating dairy.

        Unless you have some kind of identified genetic dysfunction that you have to compensate for, generally speaking, everything in moderation, eat a wide variety of foods, not overdoing any one thing is best and safest.

        1. Thank you. Do you like any particular brand of K2? I do have to avoid some veggies, due to oxalate issues. I do eat Brocolli & Cauliflower but that is about it in veggies. Your opinion is appreciated and your help in understanding how to navigate the info here is extremely helpful.

          1. See my comment posted down a ways earlier on this topic. After I posted that I also saw that some other companies make MK-7 capsules sold on Amazon. You want to look for one that says it consists of the product made by Menaq7. Anyway, since Chris recommends 200 mcg total of K2 per day, and a mix of MK-4 and MK-7 as they seem to act somewhat differently in the body (though some people seem to be sensitive to MK-7 for some unknown reason), I’m supplementing with 100 mcg of each and that should be good enough. There are also supplements with 180 mcg of MK-7 as well that claim that 180 mcg is what’s been studied to work well.

            There are cooking techniques you can use to reduce oxalates in veggies. For example, in traditional Japanese cooking some green veggies are parboiled in salted water and the water is then drained. You can search online to research how much that helps for things like spinach etc. It helps a lot with taro.

            I recommend you track your food intake for at least 3 days in the Cronometer app, to get a sense of how much K1 you get through diet. But if you don’t have any issues with blood not clotting well you may be fine as well as K1 is concerned.

            The ultimate proof is how your next bone density test comes out (while keeping in mind that K2 is just one factor in increasing bone density).

  36. I am guessing that future studies will find that the MK-10 and MK-11 in pork does get converted to the other forms, because the long-lived Ogimi people in Okinawa eat moderate amounts of pork, but it doesn’t look like they eat much natto.

    1. There is a lot of speculation regarding optimal K2 dosage. Obviously more studies are needed. However, I think its safe to say that Mk4 and MK7 are NOT dose equivalent. I do not consider it reasonable to split the numeric value of a recommended dose of mk7 into MK4 and MK7 components to that value. They are NOT dose equivalent. Their respective doses differ by an order of magnitude. MK7 dosage are generally expressed in mcg’s, while MK4 dosages are generally expressed in mg’s.

  37. It seems that the Nested Naturals K2 product is discontinued, and now they only offer a K2 product that is combined with 5,000 IU vitamin D unfortunately.

      1. thanks but that one looks way too imbalanced. Way too much MK4 (1 mg) and not enough MK7 (45 mcg), plus it has a lot of K1 which I get plenty of from my diet, and Chris Masterjohn cautioned getting unnecessarily high amounts of Vitamin K may be harmful.

      2. thanks Jan but that one looks way too imbalanced. Way too much MK4 (1 mg) and not enough MK7 (45 mcg), plus it has a lot of K1 which I get plenty of from my diet, and Chris Masterjohn cautioned getting unnecessarily high amounts of Vitamin K may be harmful.

        1. I had good results in reducing artery calcification with the similar Vitacost advanced K complex with 1.3 mg of MK4 vitamin K2. That is actually a small amount, optimal doses for MK4 in research run up to 45 mg per day. I’ve seen research with lower doses of 5 mg to 15 mg daily giving good results with bone or artery health improvements.
          The use of MK4 is safe because the body discards what it doesn’t need, so doses up to 135 mg per day have shown little in side effects. In youth the body makes enough MK4 from vitamin K that supplements are not needed.
          The MK7 is generally used in much smaller amounts. It is made by bacteria so is not a natural part of body chemistry like MK4 is.

          1. I just had a coronary calcium San with score of 60. Previous ones had been 302 and 319! I’ve been taking 30mg the last two years of relentless bit k2-4. Is that really possible ??I don’t understand how it went down that much. Happy if it’s right.

      3. what I settled on was one drop of Thorne K/D2 and one tablet of Source Naturals Vitamin K2+D3, plus one drop of Now Extra Strength Liquid Vitamin D-3 to get sufficient D3 as needed. This gets me 100 mcg of MK4 and 100 mcg MK7 each day. I see that the Doctor’s Best, Natural Vitamin K2 MK-7 with MenaQ7 is a slightly better buy for MK7, as is the Sonora Nutrition Vitamin K2 that Chris lists in the expanded Comprehensive Review section.

        1. though at this very moment iHerb seems to be having a sale on the Source Naturals so that it is actually cheaper at present than the Doctor’s Best

  38. I tried to read through the whole post but it’s quite long. Is there a suitable Vegan MK-4 / MK – 7 supplement please? I am kind of overwhelmed with choice and opinions and have no way of measuring validity. Thank you so much.

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  40. k2 180 mcg, together with d3 5000 iu ,together with angstrom ionized magnesium ,or magnesium malate/glycinater 800-1600 mg,

  41. I’m reading that D3 and K2 should not be taken at the same time. Have you researched this issue? Conclusions?

    1. Where did you read that Bonnie? I’ve never seen that anywhere and given the different actions of D3 and K2 I can’t see why it would be a problem. I think that’s probably one of the myths that float around the internet such as “don’t shower after sun exposure ‘cos you’ll wash off the Vitamin D”.

    2. Bonnie . . . Where did you read vitamins D3 and K2 should NOT be taken at the same time? I’ve never seen any studies that suggest that. Quite to the contrary, they SHOULD be taken together. Vitamin D stimulates the production of gla proteins, which do not do anything, unless activated by vitamin K2. In fact, as the dose of vitamin D3 is increased, the demand for Vitamin K2 increases proportionally.

      1. Hi. I have read the SAME. Not that D3 should not be taken, it definitely should, but to not take it at the same time as the K2. I believe I read it in a book called REBUILD YOUR BONES, The 12-week Osteoporosis Protocol by Mira and Jayson Calton, PHD. I, too, would love more insight into the issue.

      2. I’ve also read the same….NOT to take D3 at same time as K2, though one should be taking both of them…just not at same time. I think I read that in a book by Mira and Jason Calton, PHD. Book is Rebuild Your Bones, the 12-week Osteoporosis protocol.

        1. Dicksie . . . I have not read “Rebuild Your Bones”, but i did look it up on amazon, and the preview and/or table of contents makes no mention of thesis you have asserted. I have also searched the authors in pubmed, but came up empty. They have not published any clinical trials on this topic. I am not going to say authoritatively that this thesis is wrong, but Ive not seen anything to make me believe it. I can not imagine, what the rational might be, considering a) vitamin D3 needs to go through 2 hydroxylations before it becomes active and b) vitamin K2 does not interfere with those processes, which take care in the liver and kidneys respectively c) Vitamin K2 has a relatively short half life. So If not taken at the same time how else would they able to work in tandem. If you find any studies to substantiate this thesis, I would be very interested to know of it, but as I already said, I’ve never seen any such studies

          1. Thanks, Eric! I have not read it elsewhere, either, but did see it in that book…I think that is where, anyhow. I will dig the book out and see if, indeed, that is the case. I, too, TRIED to search farther on it, but found nothing. Appreciate your input. Apparently Bonnie must have also read it somewhere….though that does not make it ‘so’ just because someone (though he is a doctor if it is from that book) is stating it. Sorry about my double post. I could not tell the first one went through 🙂 It absolutely is a ‘pain’ to TRY to take them separately since I take supplements both morning and night…. Appreciate your response.

          2. Yes, the Calton’s are promoting this concept. They suggest that both K2 and D3 are competing for the same receptor sites, so they should be taken separately over the course of the day. Happy to see it disproven, but I see this idea popping up all over the place online.

          3. See the webpage for the reference #16
            which brings you to the following:

            Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

            The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal–colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption.

            Unfortunately, the full article is available online at ScienceDirect only if you have some sort of institutional access. Perhaps it is for sale too, and I’ve missed the link.

        2. I am taking 50mcg of Vit D3 every other day, and a daily dose of 200 mcg of K2-7 to avoid my blood pressure to go up. It seems that Vit D3 accumulates over time and affects my blood preassure. Also, eat some almonds along with Vit D3 for magnesium.
          When my K2-7 and Vit D3 are “balanced” I do not need to take my blood pressure medicine. That is my challenge on how to keep this balance. Any Comments or suggestions?

          1. Bonnie . . . What receptor sites are they referring to? The receptor sites for vitamin K2 are on the gla proteins (VKDPs) themselves. That is where they the VKDP activation takes place. Vitamin D3 is involved in production of these gla proteins and as far as i know, this production is not at all hampered by vitamin k2. Furthermore, vitamin D3 is hydroxylated (to become the biologically active form of vitamin D) in the liver and kidney. I am unfamiliar with any research that suggests vitamin K2 competes with vitamin D3 for receptor sites in the liver and kidney.
            In other words vitamin D and vitamin K do not have common receptors, so they do not compete for receptors. If you find any info that refutes my point, please share it. I could be wrong, but i do not think I am

    3. Let us look at this logically. Vitamin K2 and Vitamin D3 are both fat soluble vitamins found together along with Preformed Vitamin A as well as minerals like magnesium and calcium in healthy animal fats that have sustained the healthy bodies of traditional cultures for generation upon generation.

      Butter, lard, tallow, cream, cheese ghee all have K2 and D3 together. If one consumes too much fat soluble vitamins the body stores them in the body fat for use later.

      Conclusion: Logical Retroductive Reasoning shows that there are no issues taking D3 and K2 together.

      If one consumes too much fat soluble vitamins the body stores them in the body fat for use later.

      1. I don’t have a clue what retroductive reasoning is, logical or otherwise, but you 2 sound like you know what you’re talking about.

        All I can say is that the product in question, nutreince, has a miniscule amount of K: 40mcg each of V1, 4, & 7. I’m not qualified in anything, but based on everything else I’m reading, that sounds just about meaningless to me, whatever other qualities the product might have.

      2. Can I take Vit D3, K2 with Vit A? Do I need to take Magnesium the same time as D3 and K2? Can I use Magnesium L-Theronate?

    4. It is the other way around. They should be taken together which is why some supplement of D3 are combine with K2

    1. Jarrow’s K-Right contains Mk4 and MK7, but only contains 1500 mcg MK4 (not nearly enough). It also has vitamin K1, but it is not needed so I’m not sure why its included.

      Vk2® which contains 100 mcg (.1 mg) of Mk7 and 5,000 mcg (5 mg) of MK4. Most importantly both are pharmaceutical grade (with the characteristic yellow color) and sourced from Europe. If the brand of Vitamin K2 you take is white, then it is not pharmaceutical grade and is likely sourced from China.

  42. Obrigado!
    Aprecio muito a generosidade e frontalidade.
    Especialmente em tempos de Covid, os teus escritos são uma luz abençoada para muita gente atónita que se desviou do equilíbrio da natureza. Eles estão aterrados com as comorbidades, mas sem o saber, vão destruindo a ‘tua’ vitamina K.
    Como eu te entendo! Obrigado.

  43. Hi Chris–Can’t thank you enough for your exhaustive and trustworthy research. You’ve been an invaluable resource! I was diagnosed a couple years ago with histamine intolerance (history of migraines, hives, rashes, other symptoms). LOTS of research and staying as low-histamine as possible with diet, meds (no NSAIDS, for example), has helped. I’ve been taking K2MK-4 daily to address healthy calcium absorption, but have avoided MK-7 because it’s from fermented sources. Fermented foods are a known histamine trigger. So does that make K2MK-7 supplements off limits? If so, what to do? It’s a very important vitamin.

  44. So, question: I have a hereditary clotting disorder, “heterozygous prothrombin G20210A” if you know what that means, which gives me slightly higher risk for abnormal clotting.

    Is K2 of any description safe to take with this? I already take D3 along with magnesium and would like to add K2 but am afraid of causing arterial or venous thrombosis/thromboembolism. I’ve already had one PE with apparently no precipitating DVT, and do not want to go through that again.

    1. Melodei, tri-k has vitamin K1 (which you do not need) it does have some vitamin k2 (MK4) but only a small amount (500 mcg, which is .5mg). It has no MK7 at all. Its very expensive too. vK2 contains both MK4 (5 mg, which is 10x more than what tri-k contains) and MK7 (100 mcg)

  45. I wish you could replace or add measurement symbols that are used in the United States so I could better understand it in context of your information. I am retired and have hard enough time when I read it the U.S. weight symbols. Thank You

  46. Has anyone has taken vitamin K2-7 along with garlic that could share his experience? Also what is the optimal doses for K2-7 to unclog arteries?

  47. I started taking K2 (Carlson MK-4 5mg/day) about 3 weeks ago, along with magnesium glycinate (360 mg/day — broken up 3x/day), vitamin D3 (2000 iu) and also I will take some of the fermented cod liver oil/butter oil mixture (maybe 2-3 capsules a day).

    I was having trouble with my teeth chipping or developing white spots; this still seems to be going on (I notice new chips or spots everyday). I even had some gum bleeding when flossing (I’m a regular flosser and that hasn’t happened in years!) I’m not sure of course if those problems would have developed anyway. Could I be doing more harm than good? Maybe it’s too much K2?

    By the way, for diet, I do eat milk and yogurt, also cheese (I even focus on Jarlsberg, Muenster and Gouda to try to get the MK-7). It’s possible it’s still not enough calcium compared to the supplements though.

    1. I’m no expert on nuthin’, but . . . I don’t think 5 mg is too much. I’ve been taking 25 mg/day for about 2 1/2 months, and nothing bad has happened. Also, I’m not sure 3 weeks is long enough for anything bad to happen, although in a world of uncertainty I guess just about anything is possible. Have you asked your dentist what could cause your symptoms?

      1. I did ask, the best thing we could come up with was I was grinding my teeth and chewing on my nightguard, putting pressure on the teeth. I’m going to get Invisalign to fix the bite and help with the grinding.
        I had my blood levels checked as well, calcium is okay (9.7 mg/dL), vitamin D is borderline low (29.3 ng/ml). I think I need to raise my vitamin D a little and if I’m taking vitamin D, then I need to also continue with K2. Hopefully that helps with my teeth issues over time, since I’ve heard so many anecdotes about how much it helps.

        1. Again, I’m no expert . . . but I don’t think 29.3 is borderline–it’s low. I read some supplement seller’s comment once that a good target range is 50-80, so I wouldn’t be shy about getting it up. And you said ‘D;’ I assume you mean D3.

          1. Chris has written before that levels maybe should be more like 30-35, and that it could also depend on your race.

            Of course, these things are all in balance with each other. I feel like I’m still trying to figure out a good balance of K2, D, and A with each other. I hope to find it soon, and also to experience some of the improved health benefits that other people have seen.

          2. I’ve continued on with the K2 as well as the other supplements. I also added some occasional vitamin C hoping to deal with the gums. It’s been nearly two months now.
            Yet I noticed another white spot on one of my teeth and there even seemed to be some brown next to it.

            I don’t know if I’m just noticing things that were already there from before, or if new problems are really cropping up. I even contemplated that the spots were a sign of healing — maybe my teeth are changing color as they absorb minerals. Then I notice it because it changed.

            I feel like the only thing to do is to continue with the protocol, which seems pretty balanced in terms of getting all the fat soluble vitamins. Diet-wise it seems pretty good, with yogurt and beef liver and a variety of vegetables, and I’ve been getting more sun.

            It might be the case that it just needs a good 6 months before the positive changes become noticeable. I don’t know because a lot of people reported whiter teeth and no tartar after only a week or two, but so far I haven’t seen this happen.

          3. Abby, I’m replying to your comment of 7-16 below my comment since there’s no ‘Reply’ option below your comment. (But it’s looking like this comment might end up in the right place anyway.)

            It’s not clear from your initial comment if your teeth problem began before or after you started taking K2. If you stop taking K2 and the problem goes away, I guess that settles the issue.

            You might want to get an opinion from a second dentist. My dentist’s receptionist is pretty knowledgeable, so you might find a similar situation where you don’t even have to visit the 2nd dentist.

            Good luck since nobody here seems to be able to be real helpful.

          4. Not sure where the reply will go 🙂
            I had teeth problems before– I chipped a tooth back in January and noticed a decalcified spot. I started to try to fix these issues in March but didn’t learn about K2 until May. I did start on cod liver oil in March though.
            I also started feeling like my bite was bad, and that I kept tapping my teeth against each other when eating or talking. I felt extremely uncomfortable and a sense of something being wrong.

            Anyway, I thought taking K2 would help me with these issues. I started examining my teeth more thoroughly with a flashlight after I started taking the K2. I noticed a white spot a few days after I started. Then a few days after that I noticed some chips. Now a few weeks later I notice the new white/brown spot.

            I was hurting before, which is why I started the K2 in the first place, so it’s possible these problems were already there/already in development and only noticed by me later. It’s impossible to say.

            It does seem like maybe I should pause the large dose K2, and only take what I get from my cod liver oil/butter oil mixture and also from food. I think part of the reason I haven’t stopped yet is because I was concerned about vitamin D3 — but since my levels are still low, perhaps it is okay to pause for a few weeks, anyway.

            Thanks for your help vanp, I think it is just a confusing problem. I have an appointment on Monday (regular doctor, not dentist) so I might ask then as well

          5. You should ask the doctor, of course, but don’t be surprised if he don’t know squat about any of this. I’ve been taking Green Pasture’s butter oil and cod liver oil pills for years with no problems.

        2. 29ng/ml is not “borderline low” regardless of what your doctor or dentist tells you, it is VERY low. This is just another example of where mainstream medicine has set the bar for vitamins and minerals way too low. I suggest you look at this blog post by the late Dr Robert Heaney, one of the foremost researchers on Vit D and osteoporosis:

          When your body is not getting enough calcium from the diet it needs to increase the supply NOW or you die. Consequently a signal is sent to the parathyroid gland to increase the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to break down bone (and presumably teeth) to provide the calcium necessary. Chronic Ca deficiency and elevated PTH causes osteoporosis. I’d think it’d also weaken your teeth. In order to absorb Ca from your diet you need adequate Vit D.

          Look at the graph of PTH vs 25(OH)D (the active form of D). Each circle is an individual patient’s result and the red line is a mathematically calculated “line of best fit” to the data. The point where the line flattens indicates where on average a further increase in D levels does not provide further benefit in terms of PTH and bone loss, though obviously there is a lot of individual variation. Dr Heaney writes:

          “The figure shows clearly the expected high levels of PTH at low vitamin D status values, with PTH concentration falling and becoming essentially flat as vitamin D status rises to levels in the range of 125 nmol/L (50 ng/mL). Exactly the same relationship is exhibited in a report from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, involving a population-based sample of over 14,000 individuals. Both data sets found almost exactly the same vitamin D status level, above which PTH fell no further.

          Because there are many factors that influence PTH concentration beyond vitamin D status, this approach will not work very well in determining individual requirements of calcium or vitamin D. However, it does work at a population level, as the graph shows. The point at which further increases in vitamin D status produce no further decreases in PTH concentration [i.e., a plot of PTH on 25(OH)D is flat] defines the PTH set point for both calcium and vitamin D. This is the point around which the body can exercise its regulatory control of serum calcium concentration with optimal capacity in both directions. The need to compensate, and the duration of adaptation are minimized. Such a value would seem to be a reasonable estimate of optimal vitamin D status, and therefore an indicator of the vitamin D requirement.” Dr Heaney’s average optimal D level of 50ng/ml compares with Dr William Davis’s recommendation of 60ng/ml for heart health.

          To ensure adequate health of your bones and teeth you need:
          1) a calcium-rich diet
          2) enough vit D to absorb that calcium
          3) vit K2 to direct Ca to bones and teeth
          4) weight bearing exercise to build bone
          It sounds like you have 1 and 3 covered but possibly are not getting enough D.
          Check that your results actually are in ng/ml and not nmol/L – 29nmol/L is severe deficiency- and that they are measuring 25(OH)D the active form. Your level of 29ng/ml equates to about 75nmol/L. As you can see from the graph 75nmol could be either high or low depending on the individual. Get a PTH test to determine your levels. A bone density scan will determine whether you have a degree of osteoporosis. If so DO NOT allow your doctor to prescribe bisphosphonates (eg Fosamax or another brand name). These drugs show better scan results but don’t reduce fractures. Instead, make sure your C, D, K2, magnesium and protein levels are high and walk, run or skip rope. All of Dr Heaney’s blog posts are well worth reading.

          1. I want to make a correction to Stuart’s post.

            25(OH)D is NOT the active form of vitamin D3.

            Actually it is 1,25(OH)D which is the active form

            25(OH)D (calcidiol) is however, used to measure vitamin D status, even though 1,25(OH)D (calcitriol) is the active form.

          2. I think it’s important to remember that your optimal level of vitamin D3 intake depends on your vitamin K2 status because if that is insufficient, high levels of vitamin D3 intake, which would otherwise be healthy and provide enhanced immune system function, are likely to cause abnormal calcifications in your arteries and other soft tissues.

        3. Yes, your D3 is too lower. I would double what you are taking and have your D3 tested again in three months. So if you are taking D3 1000 IU, I would take 2000 IU. I see wrote this in June so I hope your levels are tested again and then go from there.
          James Kantor, Raleigh, North Carolina.

    2. I posted a lengthy reply to this post several days ago and it still hasn’t appeared. System admin please check your Spam folder. Thanks

  48. Has anyone ever notice facial difference taking vitamin k2 mk4. I have read on forum peoples faces change from taking it. they notice are more prominent cheek and jaw development. This from megadosing it. Unfortunately no one ever post photos so its hard to tell if its true or not.

    1. I read that mk4 can affect jaw development in embryos and infants, so that the jaw actually accommodates all of our teeth. Wisdom teeth pulling would be unnecessary if we were given adequate amounts of mk4. EMU OIL for the win.

  49. Sure, Emma, Vegans are also deficient in Vitamin K. You will probably not feel any signs, even though the arterial linings and heart valves are likely to build up calcium. VK2 is shippable to Australia. I hope this knowledge will be of use to you

  50. Hey, what do you think about Pure Therapro?

    I want to start supplementing my 4 year old’s diet with K2, but can’t find any full spectrum except this one and the Innovix – not sure I can give him that because of dosage and difficulty swallowing. Not sure about the reputability of Pure Therpro but I was happy to see a full spectrum K2 in liquid format.

    I’d appreciate any insight at all 🙂


      1. Right, but vK2 is a capsule, which my 4 year old can’t down. So I just wasn’t sure if you had any opinions on the brand, Pure Therapro! Thanks!

    1. I’m no expert on this stuff, but the MK-4 dosage is miniscule–probably not worth taking. Also, I may have missed it, but it doesn’t seem to say “no soy.” Not sure how big a deal this is.

    2. Like Vanp suggested, the amount of MK4 contained in that product is so small as to be useless. It also contains Vitamin K1, which most people do not need at all

    1. Shalom,

      NHS Global Distributors, Inc sells 2 products that may be of interest to you.

      vK2 contains 5mg of MK4 and 100mcg of MK7 (both are pharmaceutical grade)

      Dmax contains 5,000 iu of Vitamin D3

    1. Their website does not provide much info. I see that it contains both MK4 and MK7 but only 100mcg of MK4, which is a tiny amount. (Our Vk2 product contains 100 MG of MK4)
      I also see that it contains magnesium stearate, which I consider a substance to avoid

        1. Yes, Vamp . . . my Bad . . .The MK4 amount in Vk2 is 5 mg of MK-4 (not 100 mg as previously posted). I’m so sorry for the mistake. It’s also worth noting that it is pharmaceutical grade (unlike the ingredients of most others Vitamin K2 products).

      1. I see MK 4 at some very high doses, do you know who has it a a lower dose more like 500 mcg or 1000 mcg, which is SOY Free ( Menaquionine) and also has MK-7 in it?

        1. Innovix Labs ( Full Spectrum Vitamin K2’s MK-4 is 500 mcg, MK-7 is 100 mcg, no soy. Eric’s vk2 product above is 5 mg of MK-4 according to the website, not 100 mg.

          1. Yes, my Bad . . .The MK4 amount in Vk2 is 5 mg of MK-4 (not 100 mg as previously posted). I’m so sorry for the mistake. It’s also worth noting that it is pharmaceutical grade (unlike the ingredients of most others Vitamin K2 products).

    2. Overpriced at $35 for 60 capsules and the doses are minuscule. I can buy 30x180mcg of MK-7 at retail for $AUS15 = $US10 ie roughly the same dose of K2 for one-third the price. iHerb will sell you 250x100mcg of MK-4 for $US17.27.

      Another comparison is with Koncentrated K
      This is $45 for 60 capsules each containing 30.5 mg of K – 25 mg of MK-4, 0.5 mg of MK-7, 5 mg of K1 and 2 mg of Astaxanthin.

      If you’re trying to reverse atherosclerosis or osteoporosis IMO you need to be taking K in milligram doses not micrograms (200mcg = 0.2mg). In Japan they give 45mg/day of MK-4 to treat osteoporosis. I’d buy Koncentrated K.

      Re the natural vs synthetic issue AFAIK all MK-4 supplements are synthetic whereas MK-7 is almost always extracted from natto. I don’t see either as an issue unless you are allergic to the soya in natto.

      I presume “GundryMD” is the vegan quack Steven Gundry. He’s basically having a contract manufacturer make it up for him and slapping on his label and a hefty markup. None of the brands you see for sale make the active ingredients – they buy them in bulk and package them in pills or capsules. For any given active ingredient there are a handful of original manufacturers (sometimes only 1) that supply all the retail brands. So one brand’s MK-4 probably came from the same source as another’s. Buy based on dosage and price.

      1. I agree with most of what Stuart’s post, but disagree with his assertion that “one brand’s MK-4 probably came from the same source as another’s. Buy based on dosage and price.”

        Most are sourced from China. Both the MK4 and MK7 contained in Vk2 are European sourced and have a yellow color characteristic of pharmaceutical grade, as opposed to the white Chinese materials, which are certainly NOT pharmaceutical grade.

      2. I had estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and will not take anything that includes soy.

        I am not trying to reverse osteoporosis or atherosclerosis. I just want a good non GMO soy free low dose K-2 supplement.

        Thank you SOOOOO much for taking the time to share your expertise.

      3. Stuart, You mention that Japan uses 45 mg per day of MK-4 for reversal of osteoporosis. I actually read that study…or a couple of them…a couple years ago, but have been unable to locate it online to review it again. I had ‘thought’ that in the study they actually used 45 mg given 3x per day! Would love to know which it was…45 mg. total, or x3. Maybe it was 15 mg x 3? Thanks so much.

  51. Awesome article. Very informative. Is there any well researched article or studies confirming amounts of k2 is high vitamin butter oil the type recommended by weston price to augment benefits of cod liver oil and provide k2? Would you consider vit oil like this a real source of vit k2? Ty. Jennifer Corgan

    1. I was diagnosed through a CT scan with heavy atherosclerosis. I’m wondering if vitamin K can reverse the arterial plaques? Also, my brand of supplement is in milligrams so I don’t know if it falls into line with your recommendation. Here is the breakdown:
      MK7 = 100 mg
      MK4 = 1,300 mg
      MK1 = 1,000 mg
      These are in a base of MCT and rosemary oil. Is one a day adequate? I take it with 5,000 it of vitaminD and also with fish oil supplement. The only prescription meds I take are 2 blood pressure meds and Metformin. Thank you for access to this wonderful resource!

      1. The reversal would need two things, a reduction in insulin levels by any means and the addition of the MK4 vitamin K2 along with 5000 IU vitamins D3 and A to the diet.
        The first would be done by getting carbs under 50 mg a day, avoiding fast or starchy carbohydrates, taking 50 mg of Niacin with each meal, then increasing it about every two weeks, taking a 500 mcg chromium supplement. These will all reduce triglycerides.
        Second, take an MK4 supplement of 1 to 15 mg, higher if the condition is serious. The vitamins D3 and A will make the calcium removal in arteries more effective.

        Beyond this coenzyme Q10 and alpha lipoic acid are popular cardiac health supplements. You might look up NO More Heart Disease by Dr Louis Ignarro who tells hoe nitric oxide protects the arteries from heart disease.

        I used the Ultra K supplement with 1.3 mg of MK4 and was startled when over 12 months it got rid of artery calcification and the symptoms I’d had for twenty years. Good luck.

    2. Tumeric, found a video on u tube from a woman in Hawaii who said something about there being more than one pathway to absorption of nutrients. News to me. Dr berg probably has videos there on that subject, possibly supplements too.

  52. Hi! I have CAD (plaque in my arteries) and osteoporosis. I think I need K2, MK4 and MK7! I also have one positive and one negative for Factor V Leiden and recently began Eliquis. What kind of doctor would manage my supplementing with Vit k? Is K2 involved with clotting or just or more so K1? I really think K is the answer but need guidance. I would appreciate your advice! Thank you!

    1. Are there any research articles addressing the effect of vitamin K2 in the treatment of kidney stone?

      I have been taking K2D3 at the recommendation of my naturopath. My nephrologist is looking for clinical studies.
      Any recommendation?

      Thank You!

  53. Comments needed on Koncentrated-K from P. Theut. Is this the best therapeutical dose product going? Any success stories with valve calcification? I have it, ready to give to mom. Please, thank you. Daniel

  54. Please add Greek Yogurt to you data. A common one I use is Fage, whole or 2%. Now I am beginning to see why whole fat is better, I would guess K2 , D3, and A vitamins would be higher.
    You say take 30+ grams of fat with K2 MK7 , a tablespoon of oils less than 15 gram. Can you share your thoughts.
    Thank you for answering and for the time it took to write this article, and database. I hope you will do more YouTube on K2 and diabetes and cardiovascular health.
    James Kantor, Raleigh, North Carolina

  55. I am a vegan with low bone density. I would like to eat Natto (only available near me in the frozen form) . My question: Does freezing reduce the Vitamin K2 content?

    1. I have Natto in powder form, and I am wondering about the K2 in that. Unfortunately the bottle doesn’t say. I bought it from Amazon.

  56. My name is Jeff Mindrup. I am working on a db to track CAC regression strategies and openly publish the data to all who want it.

    I am on Twitter as MexicoBluePaleoKetoGuy @jeffmindrup

    Today, I found some interesting research that shows bioavailability of MK7 is significantly enhanced by taking MY7 with EVOO (~ 4 tsp or 12.5 grams)
    By doing so, under carboxolation of osteocalcin is decreased and carboxolation increased. By proxy, it is safe to assume the same for matrix GLA protein.

    This means the standard regression of ~ 50% per 18 months can be easily sped up and made more affordable.

    I highly recommend Saint Patrick’s Kon K, reading Kate’s book and ratios of A and D3 to MK7 and now the addition of EVOO when taking.

    I also rec eating frozen chunks of natto daily if you have a high CAC score. It is by far the best source of MKn’s (all of them) as well as fibrin breaking nattokinase. See Malcolm Kendrick’s tree ring explanation with Ivor Cummings.

    1. Hi Jeff, I am trying to understand what you are saying in your post. I truly do not know anything about Carboxolation. I have heard hundreds of seminars about K2, MK 7 & MK4, Vitamin D 3, Vitamin A, but never has this term been used. I know about Fibrin as well; due to my own blood work. What is MY 7? What is EVOO? What are the benefits? Are their any toxins in liquid EVOO? Where is it from (manufactured)? I never heard of a CAC score when doing any of my bloodwork. Thank you for clarifying.

      1. Hi Jan, I can’t answer all of your questions, but CAC is coronary artery calcium score…an indicator of plaque build-up in the arteries for those using K2 for arterial health. EVOO is Extra Virgin Olive Oil…it can actually be a ‘grade’ or designation given to olive oil to indicate the quality of said oil. As I recall, the author of Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox gets into the deffinition and explanation of carboxolation…I don’t recall enough of the details to explain. Lastly, I’m ‘guessing’ that when Jeff said MY-7, it was a typo and he meant MK-7. Hope this helps. I found his comments fascinating and will do more research 🙂

        1. Yes – apologies for any typos. EVOO = olive oil. See study for more info but this is critical because bio-availability and absorption are significantly increased. We also know that not all fats are the same from another study comparing corn oil and EVOO w/sunflower oil. Again the EVOO, despite being a blend was superior for carboxolation.

          Jan, I’d really like to speak with you as well as get your help in getting your following to input into the db I am building which will be focused on CAC regression strategies.

          The end goal is to freely distribute the best practices for CAC regression and improve upon what appears to be the standard (for APOe3/3s anyway) of about 50% every 18 months.

          Kind regards,

          @jeffmindrup on Twitter

          1. Looks guys. There are some crazy uninformed and un-researched ideas in here and they are confusing the crap out of even me that spent last 6 months studying this subject. Bottom line.

            # 1. Get Patricks Kon K – best formula – full stop. Best value, strongest, etc. From looking at the label and using the value tool Carlsons is waste of money once you understand it’s all about the MK7. (Exo Mk4 does not show in serum, MK7 converts to MK4 in vivo) Alternatively/additionally eat natto. I do everyday.

            # 2. Read Kate’s book. Just buy it and read it. Don’t be cheap.

            # 3. Yes – A, D, and EVOO to get full benefit of K and especially MK7

            # 4. Don’t get lost in the weeds – way too many unknowns with K and will be for some time because it’s can’t be patented and there’s little research on it. New study expected any day now. (but not well formed IMHO)

            #5. K2 shows zero toxicity in every study ever conducted. Half-life of about 36 hours, peaks at 4-6. If Lance Armstrong has tingling fingers, it’s more than likely from the dozens of other illegal drugs he cheated with. The guy gave himself cancer and is an admitted fraud and liar. Why give a POS any credit? PS his LiveStrong was a grift to benefit him. Not to help others. Corrupt through and through. Do your research.

          2. Responding to Jeff’s points:
            #1. Agreed that Patrick Theut’s Koncentrated K is the best value per gm, but I base that on its MK-4 content. I don’t agree “it’s all about the MK-7”. The Rotterdam group maintain that MK-7 is best based on it having a longer persistence in the blood. I’ve never found that argument convincing. If the body prefers MK-7 why does it make MK-4 instead and why is MK-4 found in human breast milk? What does the body do with the MK-4 from your supplement? Chris answers that in the article above – the cells preferentially absorb the MK-4 so that it is rapidly depleted in the blood. That says to me that MK-4 is the optimal form, but I also take 180mcg of MK-7 as insurance.

            #2 I can’t find a copy of Kate’s book here in Australia and I would have to order it sight unseen from the US. International postage would more than double the cost. To illustrate, I recently bought an out-of-print book from a US bookseller. That $US30 book cost another $US30 in postage plus 10% import tax and the conversion to Australian dollars makes it $AUS100. That ain’t pocket change.

            #3. As Chris outlines here:
            the body also requires magnesium and zinc to manufacture those vitamin- dependent proteins as well as dietary fat to absorb the vitamins in the first place.

            #4. Got a reference to that forthcoming study so we can look out for it? Why don’t you regard it as well formed?

            #5. Agreed I wouldn’t put much credence in Lance Armstrong. His main nutritional supplement was Vitamin S – S as in steroids.

          3. Curious…. How important do you consider the role of resistance training to up-regulate osteoblastic flux to signal “hey… the bones need more calcium and phosphorus… can anyone spare any?”.

        2. Thank you so much. I will be going for my first Calcium Scan. Trying to keep the heart healthy; I was able to bring down my Fibrinogen due to a vitamin supplement. So I certainly know the benefits of supplementation. I am trying to figure out a good balance when taking 3000 iu of Vit D3, How much K2 & A should I take? Because I don’t take 5000 iu of D3, it is hard to calculate how much of the other vitamins to take when it appears everything is based on 5000 of Vit D3.

      2. Jeff said “its all about MK7” which demonstrates that is clearly in the MK7 camp. I have not seen any studies that confirm MK7 is converted to MK4 in an efficient way. What about for older people? Does the age related conversion inefficiency of K1 to K2 also apply to any MK7-MK4 conversion? I would certainly not be surprised if it did.

        Clearly more research needs to be conducted on this important topic before any conclussions can be drawn

        My intention is not to bash Jeff or the product he is promoting, Rather I would just suggest that MK4 has many important qualities that distinguish it from MK7 and since there is no harm in taking MK4, so why not take it?

        1. I’ve used both MK7 and MK4 products, (not concurrently) together with D, and A and EVOO as well as a compliment of other synergistic nutrients/foods. Natto is not on my plate, yet, but that’s primarily as I don’t eat breakfast and that’s how it seems to have been used traditionally, and secondarily because I had cardiac rhythmic irregularities that were simultaneous with MK7 supplementation (about 9 years ago) and that have never reoccurred since ceasing MK7. At 64 yo, I’ve not had a CaC done or any known problems with blood vessels or symptoms suggesting the need for such a scan, although I’ve been tempted to do so just to find out (not a big fan of CAT/CT scans unless warranted) . The rhythmic irregularities also corresponded with unrefined organic Coconut Oil usage so I can’t be definitive as to the actual cause of the symptoms (possibly glycerine related and with low RBC magnesium level possibly related to chronic mercury toxicity possibly made much worse by 40 yo amalgam being removed by a dentist that took no precautions for his patient (and I’ve had 13 others of similar age since removed with the best precautions and thankfully without any problems since)), but in any case, the avoidance of both CO and MK7 eliminated the problem (together with judicious supplementation of Magnesium, Taurine and Arginine.
          It’s possible that by my age (or earlier, say early 50’s, when I first experienced problems mentioned above) conversion of the K’s has decreased considerably, both from k1 to k2, and from MK7 to M4. Low serum levels of MK4 after supplementation might be indicative of the nutrient being effectively used (rather than excreted; not sure if ever measured); high levels of MK7 persisting for days in the serum might be indicative of a problem with utilization ( a half-life of 36 hrs!).

          Just saying tho: a lot of people have reported problems with taking MK7 besides me. I’ve never had any problems with MK4 and I’ve taken upwards of 15-30 mg daily, although I’ve settled back on about 5 mg daily for a while now.

      3. Carboxylation is the last st that turns calcitonin and Matrix GLA proteins into functional chemistry in the body. This is done by MK4 vitamin K2 and to a lesser extent by the MK7 form. Both of these are needed for calcium metabolism, calcitonin works to build new bone and Matrix GLA reverses calcification of the arteries.
        The body turns vitamin K into MK4 vitamin K2 for this purpose. With age or high cortisol levels, MK4 production declines and patients experience bone loss and artery calcification. A supplement of MK4 is then needed. Several trials from Japan show a 60% to 80% reduction in bone breakage rates for the elderly with 45 mg of MK4 daily.

        1. Yes, MK4 works for bones, but there are no studies that show a benefit for calcification of the arteries. Only MK-7 works to reduce arterial calcification, as shown in studies.

    2. I just corresponded with a physician overseas undergoing a study on 1000 micrograms of MK-7 to decalcify the aorta. He advised me to use 720+ micrograms MK7 daily. While I greatly appreciated his advice, I have to ask others what they think, because I have been giving my mom (with severe mitral valve stenosis) 10mg MK4 Carlson brand and 360 micrograms MK7 Utzy Naturals brand daily for 9 months. I just want to make sure we are doing the best thing for her. Please, if you have any input we would appreciate hearing from you. Thank you, Daniel

    3. Any thoughts on supplement versions? Trying to determine MenaQ7 vs. Menaquin Gold products. Any of these better than the other? Using Kon K now, I just don’t see a lot about it. Important to be giving mom something that is very effective with her heart issue. Thanks for input.

  57. I don’t know who wrote the K2 article. It is incomplete the way it is now. The author mentions the book, Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox: How a Little-Known Vitamin Could Save Your Life, by Kate Rheaume-Bleue, but he or she apparently didn’t read it, because it is necessary for Vit A (retinol) and Vit D3 to be present for Vit K2 to do its job of keeping out of the arteries and other soft tissues, and to put it into bones and teeth. A paraphrased sub-title in the Calcium Paradox book is: Vit D, Vit K 2 and Vit A: Better Together.

    I encourage everyone to read the Calcium Paradox book.

    1. Albinka – agreed 100%

      Way too many miss the A-D-MK7 ratio and provide harmful advice that could lead to hypervitaminosis. I have found supporting research for Kate’s ratio and sent it directly to her.


      1. If a person is taking 3000 mg of D3, how much K MK-7, MK-4, Vitamin A should they be taking? Thank you for your help. I have severe dry eyes from Sjogrens so I can’t read allot of books & I have a limited ability on the computer as well. If you can help me it would be appreciated. Ty

        1. I am not an MD and have one concern, the regression of CAC scores via MK7. Please see an ophthalmologist. I do 2x a year.

          56 and 20/10 vision – no glasses required other than for reading very small print.

  58. Awesome article… I’m interested in increasing my k2 and was thinking about taking it in a tablet to increas my dose. But Im on xeljanz ( tofacitinib) to treat my ulcerative colitis and one of the side effects is it can increase cholesterol levels. So was wondering if you may now if I can take a supplement of K2 whilst I’m on xeljanz especially if xeljanz my affect my cholesterol.

  59. BIG question here, as everyone talks about calcification of arteries. Can we assume that K2 will ALSO improve calcified heart VALVES? Mom has severe mitral valve stenosis, started her on daily 5mg MK4 (Carlson brand) and 180 mcg MK7 (Utzy naturals). Mitral valve area started as severe (Area = 0.96 cm2) to now at moderate (1.12 cm2) six months later. I am thinking we want to increase the dosage (basically double it) as progress seems slow. Can anyone offer comments please thank you so much. Daniel

    1. It may take 12 to 18 months for fully reverse this although you should hve good progress by 6 months. The MK4 form will work for calcified valves as well.
      You might increase the dosage, but also consider including a vitamin D supplement and a retinol vitamin A supplement. Both of these contribute to calcium control. The vitamin D3 increases the supply of the Matrix GLA protein that prevents calcium in the arteries and the retinol vitamin A makes the Matrix GLA more effective and reduces the rate of kidney stones. Best of luck with this!

      1. David thanks. Gave Mom 5000 i u D3 for years without K2 which we think contributed to this problem. She is taking so many heart pills we are trying not to add more. terrible. We have doubled the k2 dosages and now blood pressure is coming down which I believe should be expected side effect?

      2. Folks you have been very helpful. Do you have any consensus on Koncentrated K capsules which contain 25mg of K2 MK4 and .5 mg of K2 Mk7? Looks great, Thinking of trying this out on Mom valve stenosis. I bought it just seeing if others have experience using it.
        Appreciate your thoughts.

        1. Dan, the man behind Koncentrated-K is Patrick Theut. Pat was diagnosed with extensive heart disease by the Mayo Clinic and was a patient of Dr William Davis of Wheat Belly fame. Pat reversed his heart disease with high doses of K2 and other supplements and a Low-Carb-High-Fat diet. Google his name and you’ll get lots of hits where he’s been interviewed. He also gave some talks to the Wausau Wellness Centre that you can find on YouTube.

          I don’t have any personal experience with Koncentrated-K as I’d just bought a large supply of Carlson MK-4 before I came aware of Pat’s product, but I will order it once I use up my Carlson stock. On a cost/mg of MK-4 basis Koncentrated-K is the most cost-effective way of getting a large dose that I can find.

    2. Daniel I’ve just found this site and was interested in your post as I have severe aortic stenosis and have been researching the use of vitamin k to help. Would be very interested to know what your mum is using and if it’s helping ? Thank you

  60. Hello!
    I have a A1298C mutation. I would like to take k2 but I am a bit worried about the rick of clotting. I take daily 75 mg aspirin to prevent and my blod tests are normal.
    I have been searching for info regarding k2 and blod clotting but I can only find people who take warfarin. Could you please tell me if it’s ok to take k2 and if so, how much?
    Thank you!

  61. Hi 🙂 thanks so much for this article. I am vegan and have recently learned that it is not uncommon for vegans to lack K2 (although I don’t know what symptoms I should be looking for, or tests that could be done to determine this)
    I have tried buying the three recommended K2 products but none deliver to Australia. Could you please recommend one that does?


    1. Often there are K2 dosage restrictions related to vitamin K that get applied to imports which are totally unrealistic. You may be able to order the Thorne liquid K2 which doesn’t come in a specific dose. iherb also supplies to a number of countries with import restrictions. See if you can find nearby discussion groups on the MK4 vitamin K2 and ask there about suppliers.

    2. Emma, the major problem with buying from the US is the extortionate postage charges by the United States Postal Service. They regard those of us who post internationally as a cash cow that they can milk without a political backlash. (so just like Australia Post then) To make it affordable you generally need to buy from someone like iHerb who’ve organised alternative shipping arrangements to bypass USPS.

      I’ve bought Carlson’s 5mg MK-4 from iHerb
      iHerb seems to charge Australian customers 12% more than US customers and then there’s 10% GST on top. OTOH they don’t charge freight if you order $US40 or more.

      I also take 180mcg MK-7. This brand which I buy at Chemist Warehouse
      The US products all seem to be 100mcg and work out more expensive on a per mcg basis.

      An interesting product is Patrick Theut’s Koncentrated K
      It’s expensive but offers a high dose of MK-4 and MK-7 at the lowest per-dose cost I’ve seen. Pat says he hasn’t made a profit on the product and I believe it. Pat is a small operator so has to use USPS. You need to buy 2 at a time to amortise the postage cost.

      1. BTW it’s well worth reading Pat’s “My Story” on the Koncentrated K website and watching some of his video talks and interviews. Ivor Cummins interviewed Pat for his Fat Emperor series and Pat gave some talks to the Wausau Wellness Center, all of which you can find on YouTube.

        Unless you are a regular consumer of natto, as a vegan you are almost certainly deficient in K2 since the principal sources of K2 are animal products or fermented foods like cheese. The human body has very little ability to convert K1 to K2. In regard to the consequences of Vitamin K2 deficiency they are principally osteoporosis and calcification of the arteries which are in effect two sides of the same coin. Your body needs K2 to make the hormone that deposits calcium in your bones and prevents the Ca being deposited in your soft tissues. To determine whether you have those conditions requires a bone density scan for osteoporosis and a Coronary Artery Calcification scan will indicate the degree of calcification of your soft tissues.

        If the bone density scan indicates osteoporosis your doctor will probably want to prescribe a bisphosphonate drug such as Fosamax. This will improve your bone density scores which will make the doctor happy but not prevent fractures because it results in brittle bone that can fracture in normal walking. It also has a nasty side effect known as Osteonecrosis of the Jaw whereby the bone in your jaw dies following dental work, causing disfigurement and requiring facial reconstruction surgery. So refuse to take it

        To recover from osteoporosis you need:
        1) Adequate levels of Vitamin D either from sun exposure or supplements, in the region of 50-60 Ng/ml. Get tested. You need Vitamin D to absorb the calcium from your diet
        2) Adequate calcium and phosphate in your diet, since bones are composed of calcium phosphate in a protein matrix. The best source of calcium phosphate is milk and dairy products (another strike against vegans)
        3) Vitamin K2 from diet and/or supplements. Because there isn’t an easy way to test Vit K2 status it’s prudent to take supplements
        4) You have to ensure adequate protein in your diet, 1.2 grams of more of protein per kg of body weight. Note that this is 50% more than the Recommended Daily Allowance of 0.8gm/kg, which tells you how much reliance you can place on the RDAs and the dietitians who regard them as holy writ.
        5) Last but certainly not least, you have to undergo load-bearing exercise to stress the bones and provoke bone deposition. Both bedridden patients and astronauts lose bone mass through lack of stress on the bones. The exercise can be walking or lifting weights or something as simple as skipping rope.

        For more on osteoporosis read the blog of Robert Heaney
        Until his recent death Heaney was probably the preeminent researcher into osteoporosis.

        I’ll write more about the implications of a CAC score later.

    3. Yes Emma, Vegans are often Vitamin K deficient. You would not likely notice any symptoms, even though you are likely building up calcium in your arterial linings and heart valves. VK2 can be shipped to Australia. I hope this info is helpful to you

    4. Hi Emma,
      Vegans will be deficient in vitamin K2, MK-4, because it is only found in animal foods. Too bad you couldn’t take advantage of the wonderful source of K2 -MK-4 -found in Australian emu oil, such as Emu Tracks, which is in a food matrix and well-absorbed by humans. MK-4 is the ONLY bio-active form of vitamin K2 for humans. We are not bacteria. However, there is much controversy about bioavailability and absorption of supplements in general, which are most often made in a lab and not from natural food substances, nor are they located in a food matrix as are nutrients in food. You may absorb a limited amount of MK-4 from an artificial supplement but who knows how much? I recommend a natural source which is much more bioavailable.

    5. I’m not sure why so many have complained about the cost of shipping to Australia. The cost of shipping 1 or 2 bottles of vK2 is $16.25 (First-Class Mail International)
      3 bottles ship for $25.50

    1. Yes, it is helpful for improving artery calcification and has been listed so by the Health Ministry of Japan since 1995. Calcification level is one of the best predictors of cardiac disease so controlling it is vital. The K2 enables an MGP protein to work well. Taking 5000 IU of vitamin D3 boosts production of MGP and 10,000 IU of Retinol vitamin A helps control calcium by improving MGP production and lowering kidney stone formation.
      Don’t skip the other paths to cardiac health such as adopting a low carbohydrate diet, improving nitric oxide function with daily arginine between meals, reducing triglycerides with 100 mg of plain Niacin several times a day, and taking the gamma form of vitamin E to reduce clotting.

    2. Yes Susan, Vitamin K2 is helpful in improving arterial calcification. MK4 is the form most useful for that, while MK7 is the form most useful for improving bone density.
      VK2® provides both MK4 and MK7

    1. Take the vitamin D3 for its own benefit, usually blood levels of 50 to 80 ng/ml in American units are optimal for best health. This tends to be a dose of 10,000 IU of D3 for those with normal fat absorption. The vitamin K2 works with the MGP proteins that are boosted by taking more vitamin D3.
      Have a look at taking the MK4 form of vitamin K2 which is ,what the body makes for its own use. The MK4 functions in many more places than the MK7 form does.

    2. Jeronimo,
      The idea is to have sufficient Vitamin K2 to activate all of the Vitamin K2 Dependent proteins (VKDP) in your body.

      That exact amount has not been exactly determined.

      Certainly, taking Vitamin D3, which stimulates the production of VKDPs, increases the demand for Vitamin K2.

      Numerous factors which might impact how much Vitamin K2 is needed include: how much Vitamin D is being taken, what medications are being taken, overall health status etc.

      Each capsule of VK2® contains 5mg of MK4 and 100 mcg of MK7. Its recommended to take one capsule of VK2® for every 5000iu of vitamin D3

  62. I have a hereditary stroke possibility, from the female line. Have you heard of this and do you think Vit K is involved?

    1. While improving general circulation health will help prevent strokes, the next thing is to figure out if these are strokes due to clotting or due to bleeding, then address the specific cause. Strokes can be caused either due to clotting or due to bleeding.
      The MK4 vitamin K2 would help with general circulation health and if there is artery calcification present, it improves this and the condition of the blood vessels. This should help both kinds of strokes. There can still be problems with artery narrowing or excessive clotting that need to be addressed by lowering insulin levels with a low carbohydrate diet, taking plain Niacin (see and looking up a variety of actors like alpha lipoid acid. Dr Louis Ignarro has an interesting book out on heart disease. The gamma form of vitamin E is effective for lowing INR and blood clotting.
      For bleeding strokes the important thing is blood vessel wall integrity. This emphasizes building the connective tissue in the blood vessels with enough protein, vitamin C, and copper.
      Don’t let the doctor tell you to not take vitamin K2, it doesn’t function strongly in clotting, has been shown in extensive readership trials to not induce clotting and has been safe even at high doses. Do have a talk with a qualified health professional on your particular stroke type. Just remember that doctors are not trained in nutrition and the medical references are decades out of date on vitamins.

      1. Youtube is a phenomenal resource because of poorly educated health professionals… if prescription drugs are not involved then they are out of the loop! I believe strokes are about blockages and if your lucky bleeding will be followed by clotting. We have moved forward much faster by sharing! L

  63. Still seeking a one dose, 300 to 360 microgram mk7 pill for mom, as she takes so many heart pills. The kicker- we prefer no soy but rather chickpea based. Can anyone help us? Thanks so much

    1. Daniel,
      If your mom has heart issues, perhaps mk4 may be a better choice . VK2 has both MK4 and MK7.
      If you visit the site, you can watch videos that explain in details

    2. Daniel —

      I came across this K2 MK-7 on Amazon: Rejuvenation Therapeutics Vitamin K2 MK-7 has 300 mcg capsules almost double the strength of any other brand on Amazon. All natural and derived from natto beans. Here’s a link:

      1. Yes I have a bottle of this in my possession but it is natto based. Mom has a soy sensitivity will this affect her? Also, the manufacture date was 2017? What do you think about that?

    3. Hi Daniel,
      Have you tried Andrew Lessman vitamins? I order all of my vitamins from him. The products contain no soy, and are all 100 percent guaranteed. He has several VK2-MK7 products. All ingredients are the best available. My mom and I have been taking his vitamins for the past 20 years and we will only use his products. He will be appearing on HSN network next month in Oct. if you want to check him out. Good luck and best wishes!

  64. Hi Chris

    I am an 85 year old female.
    I have been on the diet for at least 10 years.
    I just discovered the vit. K2.
    I have severe dizziness and am hoping that the vit K2 will help.
    I take vitamins from constantin they are very good..
    I am so happy that I am on your list

    Yours very sincerely

  65. Sorry, I should have asked about the D3 dosage also. There are tons of 5000 IU products. That would be the easiest thing to buy. I’ve read widely varying opinions about safe dosage levels. Two commenters elsewhere said that dose caused them to fall down a lot, one person breaking an elbow. When they dialed back the amount they stopped falling down. There are other concerns as well. How do we know what to believe here? Thanks again.

  66. I’m thinking of taking a D3/MK7 supplement that would give me 360 mcg of MK7 per day. This is more than all daily dosages I’ve seen, but based on the reading I’ve done, it’s probably OK. Is this correct? Thank you.

    1. Van,
      Research has not determined the maximum safe amount to take, but there are certainly many factors that need to be considered. The more vitamin D you take, the greater the demand for vitamin K2. For a very informative video on topic, please visit http://www.

  67. Hello!

    Have you heard of the supplement Mega-Quinone K2-7 from Microbiome Labs? I didn’t see it in your reviews and I am wondering what your thoughts are on it?
    I’m asking in regards to someone who has Osteopenia. In the “Calcium Paradox” book you mentioned in your recommended reading, the author recommends 240mg MK-7 for those who have Osteopenia or Osteoporosis, and it also mentions K2 supplements with K1 included in them are not necessary. The Mega-Quinone K2-7 supplement actually has 320mg of MK-7 from fermented chickpeas and includes 100mg K1 and Magnesium “for absorbability” purposes. Do you believe this dose is too high? What if that person is taking a high dose of Vitamin D3 in conjunction? Would they then be ok as long as they up their Vit. A intake?

  68. What about MK7 re estrogen production related to potential breast cancer reoccurrence in women treated for breast cancer?

  69. I ordered a bottle of Ultra K2 from Stop Aging Now. The K is listed as menatetrenone. One capsule has 15,000 mcg and they recommend 1 capsule per day. Is this amount too much? The bottle says that is 12,500% of the daily dose!

    1. That is a reasonable dose for the MK4 form of vitamin K2. Doses used in research have ranged from 1.5 mg to 135 mg daily with 15 mg three times a day (45 mg) being the most typical research dose. This gives the best results in research trials but lower doses have been tested successfully.
      I had great success in taking 1.3 mg for 12 months with artery calcification. I notice a few improvements in going to a 6.5 mg daily dose so many people can be helped with a 1 mg to 10 mg dose. If you have hazardous medical concerns with bone loss or artery calcification, taking the 45 mg per day dose can be justified as this requires the best possible results.
      Medical references have been very conservative on qualifying MK4 vitamin K2 with a traditional 120 mcg dose for Vitamin K. This dose ignores all the many research papers on MK4 and that the Japan Ministry of Health has listed MK4 vitamin K2 as a treatment for cardiac disease and bone loss since 1995. Th eMK4 form has been tested as low in side effects even at doses of 135 mg (135,000 mcg) per day, so the 22.5 mg is safe.

        1. Tamer,

          I suggest you visit
          There is a ton of info that you can read and there is also 2 videos that you can watch.

          The short answer is that both mk4 and mk7are important as they each have different qualities. Yes vitamin K2 can (and should) be taken at the same time as Vitamin D3

      1. Just came back from the hospital where moms Echo showed mitral valve area going up from 0.96 cm squared to 1.12 cm squared in 6 months. Using daily five mg MK4 Carlson brand and 180 MCG mk7 utzy Naturals brand. I think we’re going to double the dose of both. Please comment!

  70. I have heart disease , 3 vessel stenosis, I believe statins help to stabilise the plaque by calcification, I want to take K2 MK7, will this destabilise the atherosclerotic plaques and make them more prone to rupture, when K2 MK7 starts to remove the calcium build up , I am struggling to find a suitable answer to this question.

    1. In 2007 I had three vessels calcified to 90% plugged. Went on statins , cholesterol down to 131 in 2015. In 2016 learn of K2’s. started on MK7 and MK4 back and forth. Cholesterol shot up to 281 last year. went back on statins for a month plus B3 till my net test, Cholesterol down to 181. two months ago started on thoren vitamin D3 1000IU/mk4 . 2 drops 200mcg , vitamin d3 5000IU, Boron 3mg, Vitamin A 2662 IU, Mega COCQ 10, Astaxanthin 12mg. Had particle test two weeks ago–cholesterol 198, partial size and number in range. I’m still standing upright.

    2. This is not an in-depth answer but it does come from the website of Dr. Kate Who wrote the book… Vitamin K2 and the calcium paradox…

      Since K2 reduces plaque, won’t it increase the risk of a clot or heart attack as pieces of the plaque break off?
      This is a FAQ since as we understand K2 helps reduce arterial plaque it is easy to imagine it being chipped away or breaking off in chunks. That is not the way K2 shrinks plaque and K2 supplementation has never been associated with a cardiovascular event. In fact, vitamin K2-dependent proteins make plaque more stable and less prone to rupture. Recent clinical trials for reducing plaque in a group known to be at high risk for calcifications used MK-7 in does of around 360 mcg per day with no significant adverse effects (a few participants experienced stomach upset at this dose).

    3. I don’t know if this would help but it might be worth reading:

      I have been taking this Arterial product 2X per day which is twice their article recommendation and I take additional 100 mg. Pycnogenol at 2X per day since some studies seemed to have some stabilization effects at high doses. This is a fairly expensive treatment at these doses.
      I also take K2, D3 and A.
      Won’t really know if this is working for me until my next scan in Nov 2019. but it looked like something to try since I have 2 blockages at around 90% as of last Nov scan.
      This is not a recommendation for you, but I felt that in my case it seemed worth a try.

    4. Gary, I have some stenosis in 2 vessels and a calcium score of 579 3 years ago, probably a little higher now.

      The thing is to stop focus on removing or stabilizing plaque, but on stopping depositing it. To do that I went on a whole food plant-based diet with no added oils, per Dr. Esselsstyn. Great results, not as hard as I had thought. But it does take grit and determination at first. It has a good track record, and you can find out more by watching the movie “Forks Over Knives”.

      It works for me, my doctor agrees, and I’m on zero statins, BP went from 140/90 to 110/70, not bad for 73 years old. No meds at all, no stents, nothing. I climb long flights of stairs several times a week and workout with weights.

      I believe that so long as you are providing dietary building blocks for plaque, the body will use them and to hell with all your vitamins and drugs, the disease will progress anyway. By not putting in things which damage your endothelium (inner layer of cells inside the artery walls) it works to stop and reverse the disease. I would advise this diet for a few months, then start program of exercise to reverse the disease WHILE on the diet. Don’t exercise prior to the diet, it can raise risk a lot. besta luck, pal Bob

    5. ..BTW, coronary calcium scores may vary and there’s no really good studies on them responding to diets and other things, however, it is known that when plaque begins to go away on whole food plant-based diets, calcium scores at first rise. This is the body throwing in some extra calcium to stabilize the softening plaque and prevent ruptures and lessen clot risk. It knows, it’s been there before in the millions of years of our evolution. This data is per Dr. William Castelli, former director of Framingham Heart Study. Calcium is about 20-25 percent of plaque volume, so if you lose 10 percent soft plaque and gain 10 percent calcium, you’re way ahead. Exercise will drive collateral artery formation around the blockages, but is risky if the diet is atherogenic (sat fat, cholesterol) since it weakens the fibrous cap over the plaque. The whole food plant-based diet strengthens this cap and makes you heart attack proof from plaque ruptures, which is 90 percent of heart attacks right there. Dr. Esselstyn says it takes about 3 weeks for this to happen on the diet. I’d say give it 2-3 months before exercising in earnest. I have seen 2 people taken out from my gym on gurneys in the same week, they probably thought if they exercised, they could eat whatever they wanted. This is backwards!! If you eat right you can exercise all you want is more like it.

      1. Well, from my understanding, artery calcification is mostly caused by chronic inflammation not high cholesterol per se. A low carb/sugar diet along with avoiding Veg/Seed oils (PUFAS) at all costs. A whole foods, Ketogenic diet along w/ a targeted D3, K2 (MK4 & MK7), Magnesium, Zinc, Vit A. , etc. I’d check out Ivor Cummins interviews/lectures/vids on YT for starters. I try to keep updated & take in as much info as I can. It’s been said recently (not in any mainstream media way mind you) that Diabetes IS Pre-Heart Disease. A Ketogenic diet (or some cases simply a low-carb diet) reverses T2 Diabetes & Pre-T2 Diabetes. So, it stands to reason.

        1. PUFAs aren’t bad for you. Let’s not demonize another nutrient. The problem with some PUFAs, specifically the omega-6s, is not keeping them in balance with the omega-3s. See for one example of an important and necessary omega-6 PUFA.

          Still, don’t use seed oils to get them—maybe try some lard—because throwing off your fatty acid ratio is hardly the only problem with industrial oils. They go rancid, oxidize, and are apt to contain residues of solvents and other noxious chemicals used in their processing.

          1. Not for nothing, but when I said PUFAs, I did in fact mean Seed Oils/Veg Oils, kinda goes without saying. Every lecture or interview I’ve ever watched or read on this subject, everyone typically using the term PUFAs for Seed Oils. I thought it safe to assume you knew what I was talking about when I used the term PUFAs. However, your critique is duly noted.

          2. Are you talking about Flaxseed Oil? I just ordered a bottle to help with my dry eyes. Please let me know, TY

          3. If i may chime in…PUFA has been used a lot in health circles to refer to industrialized oils (corn, peanut, soybean, canola) and we as an audience tend to get a bit robotic with the term. Not all PUFAs are bad, but my understanding is that they all turn bad once heated. I mean, look at cod liver oil (high quality ones like Rosita or Dropi), they have omega-3 DHA and EPA which are PUFAs (to my knowledge). Even oils like walnut have their place in our diet according to Sarah Pope, a member of the Weston Price Foundation.

  71. Is there any way to counteract the insomnia caused by mk-7? I need to take it but I need my sleep!

    1. Do you take magnesium? Perhaps take K2 in the morning and Magnesium citrate in the afternoon? I’ve found K2 and Mg work in unison for me (but I don’t have to take them at the exact same time)…

    2. Hi Michelle,
      You have the classic symptoms of being sensitive to the MK7 form of vitamin K2. There are anxiety, sleeplessness, a thumping heart beat, and possibly raised blood pressure. The solution is to stop taking the MK7 vitamin K2 and switch to the MK4 form which is native to all mammals and has few side effects in the human body. Typical doses for the MK4 form are 1 mg to 5 mg, and higher if there is a serious medical risk. Carlson makes a good 5 mg MK4 only tablet and Thorne makes a liquid MK4.
      The MK7 has a half life of 3.5 days in the body so I may take a while to clear out. Know that natto is a fermented bean that contains very large amounts of MK7. The MK7 is made by bacteria and it is only partly functional in the dozen tissues that MK4 works in.
      If the MK4 is being taken to improve bone strength or reduce artery calcification, note that 5000 to 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 and a similar amount of Retinol vitamin A will help by boosting production of the calcium handling proteins that MK4 activates. Taking 200-400 mg magnesium and 12 mg boron will also be helpful.
      In my case I resolved a 20 year case of artery calcification in 12-18 months by taking 1.3 mg of MK4 daily. So the MK4 form will be more effective and and work better than the MK7 form.

      1. David,
        Do you have a blog where you talk about the details of your journey of resolving the calcification? I am very interested….thank you.

      2. Hi Mr. Sander:
        When you resolved your 20 year problem did you get a calcium CT score before and after.
        If so, can you please share with us what the scores were?
        I used similar amounts Boron at the 12 mg and magnesium citrate at 800 mg per day (the Carlson Mk4 2x day) same D and A plus 360 micro’s of MK 7 and a strict Mediterranean diet and my CT score increased at 35% per year.

        1. Hello, please help me. I took Mk7 by Jarrow for about a year and added coral calcium to the mix and my head started to grow. Im not sure why I continued to use it but I ended even getting vitamin d3 and k2 drops after and it grew more. Now I can barely stand my appearance because I feel it made me look worse. Is there any possibility it can reverse?

          1. Have you asked any guys? I’d find that kind of hot, myself, brainy lady with cute face wow. I think if you stopped doing the calcium it should stop happening, though, just my opinion, I would do that. I’m bald, so my head bigger, probably not good. Best of luck,

          2. Heather, more likely your eyes got smaller or your brain got smaller so your head looks bigger. The only documented head growth is among bald headed men. That’s why bald headed men like Robert Luhrs are smarter.

          3. Heather,

            All kidding aside you may ask your physician to test you for acromegaly, excess growth hormone. There are good reasons to believe that K2 and calcium supplements would contribute to acromegaly skull growth. The cure is pituitary brain surgery.

        2. Well, actually my head got smaller since taking vitamin K2., then again I lost 40lbs. So if the weight is the same then the head size should be the same. My dad at work played a trick on a guy who just got a raise and told everyone else. He put a one inchstrip of newspaper inside his hatband every day, then had everyone come around and watch while he put on his hat. Really freaked him out.

      3. similar amount of Retinol vitamin A will help by boosting production of the calcium handling proteins that MK4 activates. Taking 200-400 mg magnesium and 12 mg boron will also be helpful.
        In my case I resolved a 20 year case of artery calcification in 12-18 months by taking 1.3 mg of MK4 daily. So the MK4 form will be more effective and and work better than the MK7 form

        such huge dose of retinol “am concerned for side effects ‘are we deficient nowadays in vitamin a at all ?
        your great results with mk4 doesn’t tell me anything about mk7 would miss to give you same results “

    3. The solution to this is to stop taking the MK7 and replace it with an equivalent 1 mg to 5 mg dose of an MK4 only form of vitamin K2. Virtually all of the time this solves the problem.

  72. Hi Chris. Thx for great info on K-2. Perhaps you might be able to add clarity on blood thinners and K-2. You mentioned anti-coagulant coumadin. What about Plavix/clopidogrel, which differs somewhat is I believe anti-platelet. I’ve read that K-2 and Plavix will not interact. Perhaps you can address?!…

    I know, I should contact my doc, but my cardiologist is useless (MI last year at 56, 2 stents, am now solidly LCHF and endeavoring to prolong life, excited about K-2’s reported mortality reduction….

    1. Hi, I have same question. I take Plavix, aspirin and i’m not sure if it is okay to take K2. My cardio did not say anything about it when i asked. Bro, did u get answer for this ? Thanks.

  73. I’m trying to find a supplement for mom who has very high valve calcification, specifically in the mitral valve. I’ve had her on MK-7 150mcg daily (“Solaray triple strength K2”) for two months and not sure if this is helping. Thinking we need the MK-4 as well. Is this better for valve calcification? The ones recommended may require two dosages to get where she needs and she is already taking so many pills for her heart. Thanks so much for your input. Daniel

    1. I’m no doctor but I’ve experienced better outcomes from switching to mk4, as in the calcification on the rear of lower front teeth chips away by itself/more easily, and my skin improves. I can’t speak of valve/soft tissue calcification but it makes sense evolutionarily to me that mk4 would be more necessary and effective than mk7. I think Thorne Research drops are a good brand and they come along with D3. Add some vitamin A (or consume liver regularly). I would also suggest taking Magnesium citrate 100-200mg as well – I’ve noticed that K2 and Magnesium work better together for me. These are the only supplements I take. The book, The Calcium Paradox, explains well how these vitamins interplay with each other.

      1. Thanks, I found Jarrow K-Right which has 1500 mcg of MK-4 and 180 mcg of MK-7, plus 2000 IU D3 along with K1 (not sure if important or problematic). Anyone seen this one?

        I’ve also heard vitamin A. Can she take beta-carotene or does it need to be A and how much? Thanks again for your advice.

        1. Hi there,

          Beta-carotene is the plant version of vitamin A and nowhere near as bio-available to humans as the animal-sourced version of vitamin A (Retinyl palmitate or acetate). Liver or pâté is best, but if not consuming those things, a good supplement may help. I take 5000iu retinyl palmitate per day or sometimes just 25,000iu per week instead…

          1. In all my reading I’ve never heard about the vitamin A importance can you please elaborate on that. Thank you Katy!

          2. This is quoted directly from Kate Rheaume-Bleue’s book: ‘Vitamin A plays a valuable role in managing the body’s need for vitamin K2. On a molecular level, it is precisely this misunderstood role that gave vitamin A an undeserved bad rap. Vitamin D stimulates the production of vitamin K2–dependent gla proteins, thereby increasing the body’s demand for vitamin K2 and the potential to benefit from K2. That makes vitamin D a superstar because the more vitamin K2–dependent proteins you make, the more calcium you can direct into bones and away from arteries, if you have the K2 to activate those proteins. So vitamin D looks good. Here’s where things get tricky. Working together, A and D synergistically improve osteocalcin production.’

            This is only a fraction of the info she goes into in her book. I can’t recommend it enough.

          3. And this:
            ‘Vitamin A has a K2-sparing action; having adequate amounts of retinol reduces the demand for K2, allowing your body to get by on less menaquinone.’

          1. Adding the Retinol vitamin A results in the formation of more Matrix GLA proteins which are activated by MK4 vitamin K2. This was used in one trial to reduce the number of kidney stones some patients were getting from high dose vitamin D3 treatment. So vitamins K2 and A work synergistically to control calcium metabolism to good ends.
            Note that vitamins A and D3 are needed in a balanced proportion or ratio and there is little specific research on this. I found that an optimal amount of each was 10,000 IU of D3 and 30,000 IU of Retinol vitamin A.

        2. There is no harm in taking Vitamin K1, but it is not needed. Vitamin K1 deficiency is very rare. Vitamin A is a good to take, but taking beta-carotene is not such a good idea.

          I recommend vK2 which contains both MK-4 and MK-7. Each capsule is intended to be taken with each capsule of 5000 iu Vitamin D3

      2. Does anyone know the best ratio of D3 to K2? For years my mom was taking 5000 iu D3 without K2 at all. I now have her on 1500 mcg MK4, 180 mcg MK7, and this is combined with 2000 iu D3 daily. Since I am concerned about not overloading her again with D3, is this balance, combined with magnesium, safe? Is 2000 id D3 daily going to put her back in dangerous territory? Thank you, Daniel

        1. Its not an easy answer. In general the idea is to have enough vitamin K2 to activate all the Vitamin K Dependent Proteins (VKDP).
          Vitamin D stimulates the production of VKDP, which is why vitamin D increases the demand for Vitamin K. That being said, there is no harm to take more vitamin D3 (up to a limit) but it wont provide additional benefits w/o having sufficient vitamin K to activated all the VKDP that the additional vitamin D3 would stimulate. Thats for vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 on the hand can be toxic if taken too much.

          Another point to consider is that MK4 is more suitable for activating MGP, while MK7 is more suitable for activating OC.
          That’s why its important to supplement with both MK4 and MK7.

          The bottom line is that the exact ratio of vitamin K2: Vitamin D to achieve activation of all VKDP has not been determined yet and would depend on if we are talking about MK4 or MK7.

          vK2 contains 5mg of MK4 and 100 mcg of MK7. We estimate this to be an optimal amount to take with 5,000 iu of vitamin D3

          1. Eric summarizes in this post what I learned by studying the literature and Dr. Masterjohn’s summary.

            One addition is that Vitamin K2 substitutes more efficiently than ubiquinol in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Cross comparison of bicycle teams showed 7% improved aerobic performance with 200 mcg of K2 in the diet. 7% is enough to win a bicycle race. Lance Armstrong commented on his web site that a high dose of K2 causes finger tips to tingle. Mine do because I supplement with my own fermented Bacillus subtilis/liver/limburger pate. I guarantee you Lance Armstrong was taking more than 200 mcg K2 per day. I find it amusing that he was sanctioned for blood doping and testosterone when perfectly legal K2 gave him >25% aerobic advantage. ☺☺

          2. I’m still struggling with a decision that will affect mom’s hypercalcemia outcome: She dosed 5000iu without k2 for years. Has valve stenosis. Now on mk4 and mk7 but do I even need D3? I don’t want any additional calcium in the bloodstream but rather to stabilize or remove it. Please let me know if this is correct thinking. Thank you.

          3. The most sensitive and numerical test for progress reversing calcification and stenosis is pulse wave velocity. Accurate home testing devices were offered by Nokia for $1000 until FDA demanded an approval. Nokia no longer offers the device in USA. Smuggle one in from Europe. FDA approved devices cost $10,000. Find a clinic.

        2. Best way to know, and perhaps the only way to really know is a D3 blood test. They are not very expensive and seem to be accurate.
          For my clients, I look for a value of 60 ng/ml or above – I prefer 80 ng/ml as an excellent value. I have some clients in the 90’s.
          I go with 5000 mcg MK4 2xDay and 400 mcg MK7 along with 5000 up to 10000 vitamin A pre-formed.
          I can’t give you medical advice for your mother (or you) but these are the values I use for myself and clients. Your mother may have different goals/values.

          1. Thank you for this great information. I am trying to stabilize or hopefully improve her stenosis and calcification without doing something that would worsen it. Mom is a bit heavy and her D3 is low, 40. I had her on 5000 iu for years without K2. Now only 2000 iu as I am afraid to bump it up again.
            it seems like my values are on the low side, but she is taking so many heart pills. I hope what I am doing will be helpful, comments appreciated.

          2. Additionally….how important is vitamin “A” for this, as I read hardly anything about it. More pills for mom…trying to avoid it.

          3. My MK7 supplement we prefer is sourced from soy. I know there are other options but we are using this one right now because we like the other ingredients. How critical is this if you have a possible sensitivity to soy? It seems like such a small amount. Thank you. Daniel

          4. For artery calcification several things are involved. The MK4 vitamin K2 is essential to carboxylate the Matrix GLA protein that reverses calcification. Taking the vitamin D3 is fine as this boosts the levels of calcium handling proteins. In addition, taking the Retinol form of vitamin A also results in better Matrix GLA production and this is reflected in how Retinol is able to reduce rates of kidney stones. She should also get magnesium daily.
            My best guess for this series would be.
            5000 IU of vitamin D3
            15,000 IU of Retinol vitamin A
            5 mg of MK4 vitamin K2 three times a day. More would be acceptable.
            200-400 mg of magnesium citrate or a more gentle taurate.

          5. Thank you so much all. I’m wishing I had some test feedback to determine if the vitamin regimen is working. Those scans and such are not readily available here in Pittsburgh PA. I’m wondering if I can assess mom by checking her on a monthly basis with regard to activity tolerance. I have no other way to know. Should I expect to see a change within months, or years? She was supposed to have mitral valve surgery a few months ago, and we decided too risky. Thus the vitamin and lifestyle changes.

        3. See if you can get her eating a few carrots each week for the A. 2 average carrots/day is a nice amount to load up on, then maybe one a day would be good. My own remedy for my calcium is a whole food plant-based diet. Not for everyone, but the ones who do it, never have any more heart problems, strokes, even diabetes is eased off. The study participants who didn’t do it, most of then either had heart attack, stroke, or death in a few years’ time. But they were only 10 percent of the group, the rest had zero of those things. So it is do-able. Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn did the studies on this.

          1. Animal-derived vitamin A is far more bioavailable than beta-carotene from carrots. A significant percentage of people can not even convert it at all! I’m a big fan of animal-based diets for being far more nutrient dense. But you must do your own research and decide for yourself.

        4. Hi Daniel…there is a product from Forefront Health that combines these three fat soluble vitamins in one convenient bottle. It’s liquid, so no more pills to take. The ratios are good too, each serving size is 7 drops and you can take a dose with each meal if you prefer more than one serving per day. I’m not affiliated with this company, I simply think it’s a very convenient and SUPER CLEAN product that is very easy to take.

          Ingredients: retinyl palmitate (Vitamin A), cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), and MK-4 menaquinone (Vitamin K2), MCT (coconut oil)
          Other Ingredients: None

          One serving provides 5,000 i.u. vitamin A, 1500 i.u. vitamin D and 2 mg. vitamin K2 as Mk4.

          I try to purchase when it goes on sale for extra savings.

          1. Thank you very much, I see much information about MK-7 but not much about vitamin A in my studies. We will try to get the vitamin “A” in as well. I am wanting to have MK-7 in the mix as well based about my research. I will look into it but right now we are using Jarrow K-right. Daniel

          2. Kind of annoying that I can’t reply to nested comments, so this is the most relevant one.
            Look to nature to find correct ratios of vitamins. For example, cod liver oil (Rosita or Dropi) list their oils as having 10 times more vitamin A than vitamin D. I also heard from Dr. Shiva that we should be getting ten times more vitamin A than vitamin D. I don’t know why that is the case, but reading some of the comments here suggests that vitamin A spares vitamin K2 so that we would needs less k2 to trigger the synergy between A and D.

            Dr. Weston Price referred to vitamin K2 as the x-factor, and most of his research involved native population and their diets, rich in K2, and how they’ve never seen a dentist in their lives and never developed dental issues until some of them were introduced to grains or industrialized foods.

            To quote my favorite clothing brand Icebreaker:

        5. There is no specific proportion of vitamins D3 and K2. Below a healthy age 40 we generally make enough K2 from vitamin K1 to have an adequate supply. Above the age of 40, production of MK4 vitamin K2 drops off gradually resulting in lowered calcium metabolism where bonevloss occurs and artery calcification starts. Giving vitamin K2 to young people is not likely to show an effect.
          So the basis for dosing vitamin K2 would be in proportion to the symptoms of low vitamin K2. 1 or 2 mg will do a lot over time for healthy people. A 5 to 15 mg dose would be good for those with more serious health problems. If the patient is in immediate danger from bone loss or artery calcification, the most effective dose used in research was 15 mg with each meal containing some fat for a total of 45 mg a day.

          1. Hi David,
            “So the basis for dosing vitamin K2 would be in proportion to the symptoms of low vitamin K2. ”

            AFAIK the symptoms of Vit K2 deficiency are osteoporosis, soft tissue calcification and kidney stones. All requiring scans to determine. How do you know how much K2 is required to reverse these? Were you getting repeated scans and adjusting based on the results?

            Similarly, in another comment you said that you found the optimum amount for you was 10,000IU D3 and
            30,000IU of A (seems a lot of A). How did you determine that? Does the form of A make a difference? I can only buy retynil palmitate here.

            Lastly, do you have a reference for the study that used 45mg/day K2 for arterial calcification? I know they use 45mg in Japan for osteoporosis but wasn’t aware anyone had treated calcified arteries with it in a formal study.

          2. Re: young people. I would guess from historical and almost lifelong symptoms of acne resolved in recent years by supplementing K2mk4 and Magnesium that I am genetically a poor converter of K1 to K2. I’ve been giving K2mk4 and Mg to my kids and have noticed whiter teeth and resolution of blocked pores on my tween. They may have inherited my poor ability to convert K1 to K2.

            Basically, the only supplements I take are a replacement for eating liver, which I can’t abide (pity).

          3. BTW regarding osteoporosis and bone health generally I strongly recommend the late Robert Heaney’s articles at
            If you are not familiar with Dr Heaney he was the initiator of the long-running Omaha Nuns Study into osteoporosis and a leading authority on bone health, calcium metabolism and Vitamin C. This obituary outlines his achievements

            If I can summarise Heaney’s articles on correcting osteoporosis you need:
            – adequate calcium in your diet
            – adequate Vitamin D to absorb that calcium
            – adequate protein to rebuild bone (bone is 50% protein and only 20% calcium)
            – phosphorus since the calcium in bone is calcium phosphate. Hence the best source of Ca is dairy which already contains the calcium phosphate.
            – Vit K2 to direct the calcium to your bones.

            He points out that calcium is so essential to your body that it is tightly regulated and if your calcium intake today is inadequate then your body will tear down some of your bone today to get that calcium, but in the process also destroys the protein matrix. In order to rebuild that bone in osteoporosis patients you need more than 150% of the RDA of 0.8grams of protein per Kg of body weight. (So much for the RDA!)

            The way that the body increases that bone teardown is through the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH). To quote Heaney:
            “The concentration of PTH circulating in our blood stream is, thus, a reflection of how close our serum calcium level is to the set point, or how hard the body has to work to keep it there. When calcium intakes are low (either because the food contains little calcium or because, with vitamin D deficiency, we’re not absorbing efficiently), PTH levels will typically be elevated. And, accordingly, when absorbed calcium intakes rise, PTH levels fall, until they reach some minimum value below which they drop no further, no matter how much additional calcium we may consume. Other things being equal, a low PTH level is an indication of calcium adequacy.” Conversely high PTH implies either low VitD, low dietary calcium or both together. Heaney then goes on to show that PTH flattens out at a serum Vit D level of 125nmol/L or 50ng/ml, although with a degree of individual variation.

            I mention this because when my mother’s blood test showed high PTH her GP suggested referring her to a surgeon to get her parathyroid gland removed! No mention of calcium or Vit D status. It appears that modern medicine’s motto is “when in doubt, cut it out!” Sheesh.

          4. EXCELLENT post Stuart!!! I agree 100% and think everyone should have their PTH tested.
            Thanks so much!

    2. Tell your mom to back up forty years and eat properly. Every day should include liver, fresh greens, strong flavored fermented foods such as kefir, buttermilk, labneh, brie, feta, Swiss, Limburger, saurkraut, natto, miso, tempeh, kunjukjian, ambrosia, pickled fish, liverwurst, salami, molasses, pate, reheated leftover vegetables, hummus, kimche, pickled beets, pickled cucumbers, salsa,….

      1. KGB, those foods would KILL anyone with histamine intolerance. Please educate yourself before posting such ignorance.

        1. @Kelly

          I know this is a really old thread but maybe someone will see my reply. You CAN eat fermented foods with histamine intolerance. Supplement with DAO with such a meal. It neutralizes histamine in foods. I also recommend supplementing with digestive enzymes to make sure.

    3. I highly recommend vK2, which contains pharmaceutical grade MK-4 (5mg , 100% trans form) AND MK-7 (100 mcg, 70% trans form)

  74. Wondering what is the optimum amount of Vitamin D3 to take with 200 mcg of Vitamin K2MK7? I am on a ketogenic/keto-carnivore WOE. I live in Saskatoon, SK, Canada and am a red-headed, 62 year old woman. I have heard that red-heads make their own Vitamin D but not sure what kind. Am taking 200 K2MK7 with 1000 mcg Vitamin D3, presently.

  75. Hi Chris,

    Love your work. My own experience with K2 has been an interesting one. I’ve been using it for 3 years after stumbling into both your information online and Dr Kate Rheueme-Bleaue’s book. It coincided with when I first started eating low carb, healthy fat. At first I noticed improvement in my nails when consuming significantly more grass fed butter and that’s when the whole K2 a-ha moment occurred.

    I’ve experimented with both K2 MK4 and MK7 and found the effects of using mk4 far superior, measurably so. I think it lines up well from a evolutionary standpoint and is probably why mk4 is used up so quickly by the body.

    I would also bet money on me being a super-lousy genetic converter of K1 to K2.

    Benefits of mk4 vs mk7:
    No dental calcification – the stuff literally chips away once I change to mk4.
    Significantly improved skin – back and facial acne disappears.

    As long as I take K2 *with* daily Magnesium, my 40+ yr nail biting habit literally stops. I’ve tested this a number of times, if I stop taking either K2 (either mk7 or mk4 do the job) or Mg, the urge to nibble my nails creeps in over about a 10-14 days. Once I resume taking both supplements, the urge to chew goes after about 2-4 days.

    The only supplements I take daily are:
    K2(mk4)/D3 Thorne drops (5-10 drops twice a day)
    Magnesium citrate (100mg)
    Vitamin A (5000iu)

    I probably won’t bother with K2 mk7 supplements anymore as I eat plenty of the relevant cheeses and/or sauerkraut, and I’m convinced they’re less important than mk4 anyway….

    If only I enjoyed eating liver, I could drop the supplements altogether 😆

    1. Oh, I forgot to add…

      I’ve been giving my kids the same K2 as me for the past 3yrs so : 6-9mths of mk4, then a switch to mk7 for about 18mths and now a recent switch back to mk4.

      They’re teeth are measurably whiter when taking mk4 compared to the mk7 (which made zero difference). Takes about a month to see difference.

      My 8yo son recently had to see a maxillo-facial surgeon regarding an underbite, and we’re going to leave it a year and have another look in 12mths time. I’m very interested (and hopeful) that switching back recently to K2mk4 will contribute to an improvement (although we’ll never know for sure if it was the K2 that made the difference or just normal growth correction – fingers crossed, I’ve heard of adults online claiming improvements of jaw structure using K2… we’ll see…).

      1. Regarding underbite and jaw structure, look up an Orofacial Myofunctional Therapist in your area. Exercises are very effective at correcting jaw structure in young children!

    2. So interesting about your nail biting, because I’ve also noticed magnesium affects that for me but lately it hasn’t been helping. Do you take all 3 supplements at the same time? Have you ever taken them on the same day but at different times to see how that affects? Also, what time of day do you take them? I’ve noticed timing can have a big impact for my sensitive body. Thank you so much in advance!

  76. The fact that other than a few specific naturally occurring foods have high levels of K2 leads me to believe that an assumption that 100mcg a day is needed or 200mcg is not based in reality. The reality is that it seems you would be lucky to be able to get more than 50mcg a day without actively trying to consume multiple foods on this list, which I am sure people historically did not have access to all of these foods at any given moment like we do today. If you get to page 12 you see that the levels in foods vary widely. Given that Weston Price had such great results when adding in small amounts of butter oil and the levels vary widely from one butter to the next leads me to believe only small amounts of vitamin K2 are needed.

    1. Sir,

      Humans evolved over more than a million years. During that period the bulk foods were fresh vegetables. High K2 bacillus subtilis are swimmers moving up plants toward oxygen during rain. Green leaves and fresh vegetables are high in Vitamin Kf2.

      In addition the primitive food over a million years was a community porridge recooked day by day. Bacillus subtilis are heat resistant spore former not toxic and they produce plentiful Vitamin K2 during cool porridge periods.

      Lance Armstrong reports that high intake of K2 causes the fingers to tingle. He should know. He had an aerobic bicycle lab in his home. He titrated his bicycle aerobic performance versus intake of multiple supplements by sending out blood samples for analysis. He won 5 Tour de France races.

      Independent physiological athletic research comparing bicycle teams with and without 300 micrograms per day of K2 showed 6% improvement of aerobic performance on this low dose of K2.

      I take enough K2/day to achieve tingling in my fingers. I grow my own Bacillus subtilis and blend it into a liver/Limburger cheese pate. I dare say I get more than 1 mg/day. I cannot afford outside analysis like Lance Armstrong.

      I suggest to you that OVER 1 mg/day of K2 was the norm over a million years of human evolution.

      1. K2 might have played a role in Armstrong’s career but EPO, steroids, etc were the elephants in the room. He’s worthless

    2. Industrial farming helped kill K2 in our diets (here in the USA). I’m sure our natural K2 intake was a lot higher eating grass-fed meats, grass-fed butter instead of factory farmed grain-fed meats/butter. If one had a healthy diet with a combination of grass-fed meats, grass-fed butter, eggs, and the right cheeses before our grain-fed factory farming took over the country, I believe our K2 intake probably rivaled a diet high in say.. Natto consumption like parts of Japan. At the very least, we weren’t deficient in K2 (before factory grain-fed farming).

      1. I read on nutritionfacts dot org that in former times our diet included bugs, dirt and feces, all high K2. We make it in our colons, but it’s too far down to be absorbed. Termites are loaded with K2 and gorillas crack open rotting tree trunks and logs to get at them.

  77. I would suggest;

    Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox: How a Little-Known Vitamin Could Save Your Life;
    Kate Rhéaume-Bleue, BSc., ND

    1. I am personally on the WFPB &No oil bandwagon…i know and understand a lot of people are on the paleo/carnivore/ alike bandwagons.
      I am no fundamentalist, no strict vegan and no preacher. I take several supplements and vitamins.

      Anyway as a whole food plant based person consuming little or no oils…. i wonder how to get good absorption of K2….
      i understand with meals with saturated fats would be best. So which non-animal -whole -foods might best be consumed to eat with vitamin k2 caps besides avocado? Cause i cannot purchase those here. Please do not suggest oils.Thanks

      1. Hi, Brenda, I am on WFPB also, with no added oils. I add ground flax seeds to my green smoothies for fat-soluble nutrient absorption, if that’s any help.

        BTW being whole food, I add natto to my green smoothies as well to get the whole package of K2, plus many other things, enzymes, etc from the natto. I hate natto, but added to the green smoothie it’s ok. Here’s the formula for about 3 days worth smoothies: greens (various, kale, spinach, chard), natto 2 packages, 1/2 tsp baking soda, 3 tbsp. ground flax seeds, few sprigs basil, few sprigs mint. I buy basil and mint in big bags from restaurant supply cheaply. Top with ground nutmeg.

        I also take “Koncentrated K” which has all the K types in large daily amounts economically in addition to natto, since it appears K isn’t harmful in typical amounts. The product has 500iu K2 mk7, 25mg K2 mk4, some K1 too. It’s about 45 bucks for 2 mo supply (60 caps).

        1. Bob,

          IMO, “Koncentrated K” has way more MK4 and MK7, than is desirable. It also has Vitamin K1, which virtually noone needs to take.

          Do you happen know what color the ingredients are? If not yellow, than its not likely to be pharmaceutical grade.

          1. The capsules are pale yellow. The maker/seller is a professional chemist. The dose of 500ui/day is within range of the 360iu/day used in clinical trials by Dr. Shurgers in Netherlands. 360 was the lowest dose that would fully carboxylate the MGP of all subjects. He would’ve used more than 360 but laws over there limited it despite no evidence of toxicity. The maker checked all of it with Shurgers, and himself takes two of the capsules per day. He also tested to affirm that some of the MGP remained un-carboxylated, which he says it essential. Hope that helps.

        2. Thanks bobluhrs for the suggestion ground flaxseed is indeed a good option,very healthy too….
          I will look into the k2 source you mentioned. Natto to try; but is hard to get hold of here. Should be ordered and all and logistics here are suboptimal.

          1. Sure. I’ve seen online info about how to make natto at home. Just soy beans and a starter bacterium. Once you have some you can make all you want. It was made by accident in Japan when they wrapped their soy beans in straw and buried them, came back and found all this goo around the beans, but ate it anyway, and from there it became a huge fad, nobody remembers why. Half of Japan loves it and the other half thinks they’re daft. Good luck, though your time of depending on luck is over with what you’re doing. So good luck if you need it for something else, I guess… Calcium scores always go up a bit while the body disposes of plaque (80 percent is soft plaque) it throws in some calcium to stabilize the plaque while it melts away. This is from Dr. Wm Castelli of Framingham Study, as reported by Esselstyn. Enjoy your miracle.

          2. thanks for your response

            How would you compare their shade of yellow to the one on the link below?

            not to beat a dead horse, but
            my point being that the more pale the yellow is, the more likely it is less potent.

            It may not be valid to compare a photo to an “in person” view but regardless how do they compare?

          3. I looked at their website but didn’t find any pictures of their capsules to compare the yellow color. Mine is pale yellow about straw colored. I know the maker, spoke on the phone with him, he started with the calcium score and that’s why he created the product, to save his own skin. He’s industry veteran chemist seeking to provide a product that covers all the K bases below the cost of the others. I doubt he’s a cheat at all, nor that the other one is, either. I also take natto, and another brand of MK-7 at 100 iu/day from ‘nattopharma’ named menaq 7. I’m sure all these sources can criticize the others to where you’d buy from them, that’s just marketing reality. So I use a few sources, since I think K2 is a good vitamin to supplement, just a vitamin, however, and won’t fix plaque much at all on the US diet. The body will override any attempt to remove calcium it has placed there to stabilize plaque, unless the plaque itself is removed, then the body will throw more calcium at the soft, degenerate plaque till it’s gone. THEN and only then might the vitamin come in handy to normalize the calcium. Maybe. It’s just my thinking, certainly not an expert.

          4. With that amount of K2, is it a problem with how much Vit D I take? I only take 2000 IU a day.

          5. As I understand it, and have read about it, vitamin D tends to increase body’s production of MGP and osteocalcin, among other things. K2 then reacts with these to improve osteoporosis and retard calcification of soft tissues. 2000 is plenty of vitamin D according to some, and not enough, to others. Dr. Fuhrman recommends 2000, the D association, 5000. Another guy, Dr. Eric berg says he clears calcium from people using 10000, plus 400 of K2 MK7 for a few months time, then lowers the dose of both, I forget the details. He’s not one of my favorite sources, sort of messes around without documentation or discipline, but he hasn’t killed anyone I know about.

          6. I strongly disagree with bobluhrs.

            If one isn’t getting enough calcium in the diet, it is pulled from the bones, creating calcification/bone spurs. Yes, calcification may happen from not enough vitamin D and or possibly K2, but K2 may lower blood calcium levels as Chris has noted above, something one DOES NOT want if they’re deficient.

            Off topic, but Furhman is a joke IMO, and Berg not much better. I’d like to see his published studies showing those kinds of results.

          7. I am not worried about calcium deficiency, don’t think many actually are unless their diets aren’t sufficient. I eat plant-based and get plenty of both calcium and potassium and no animal protein to create metabolic acidosis and rob bones of calcium. I don’t have low calcium in blood. If K2 lowers it, maybe because it steers it from the blood into bones and teeth where it belongs, and the person needs more of it. Off topic, I don’t think Fuhrman’s a joke at all as a doctor, his patients appear to be doing quite well, especially when you consider where they started out, though Berg I can agree on. Fuhrman’s a hypothesis generating type of researcher not a proof type, he doesn’t conduct studies, only summarizes and conjectures, which is quite common at early stages of discoveries. If it’s not then tested properly you can’t rely totally on it, which is where he’s at currently. I heard there are some studies on his diet underway, not sure how much finished.

      2. The reply button in the thread below is gone so i put my response here.
        Anyway Fuhrman is very knowledgeable, no joke at all. One of THE smartest doctors out there, so do not insult him.
        In fact many normal doctors ARE a total joke, ( i work in a hospital , traditional doctors know next to nothing of nutrition, they will advice cow milk and cheese for bones like most nutritionist so they have like traditional orthodox views you might say)
        but Fuhrman is far from it.
        He and Esselstyn, Klaper, Greger, Mc Dougall, Pritikin and a few others deserve a medal. They belong to the tiny group of doctors which are not money or ‘incentive’ driven…. There is no money to be made from good advice and good foods.

        They managed to reverse lots of cardiovascular dieseases, no statins or other drugs ever managed that. Pritikin himself has a very special story, sad ending, but very very special and fascinating.

        I think the paradox is THE most unhealthy foods, also contain a tiny little K2. Loads of saturated fat and a tiny speck of K2 to counter it? That just won’t cut it today.

        Some time ago i got really interested in dr Joe Prendergast, he treated people with massive doses of Vit D. Of course people will say he is a joke too, they always do and will do with people who are out of the mainstream. You might want to try telling your family doctor you take K2, he or she will not even know what K2 is or does in 97% of cases nor know anything about dosage etc. Anyway, Prendergast was or is a endocrinologist and had lots of success with treating diabetics. I guess i got into him because of Bobluhrs here LoL .Anyway all you meat- chease- dairy eating keto believers might want to look into him too.
        Very special indeed.
        Don’t believe me, just find out for your self, same with Pritikin. Mc Dougall and Klaper, very special and fascinating stories that share 1 common trait: they often had major health issues themselves in youth.

        1. bobluhrs, you might want to read up more on calcium. It doesn’t just belong in the bones and teeth — your muscles need it to contract AND relax. Not enough calcium and you get tetany, and extreme contraction of the muscles.

          Brenda, I doubt I’ll convince you of anything, but humans are omnivores, not herbivores. That’s a fact.

          Now certainly if one eats too much muscle meat then that can create acidosis, where minerals are pulled from the bones to try to correct that.

          But we NEED dietary cholesterol. If you don’t believe me, ask Chris. Studies have shown that a cholesterol level below 175 greatly increases the risk for depression and anxiety. And the fact that one does not get that from a vegan diet probably explains why McDougall has become so unhinged.

          Don’t believe me, then check out a video on youtube, entitled “An Explosive Interview with Vegan Expert Dr. John McDougall”. The man snaps at almost every question and is clearly unable to settle down.

          As for Furhman, a friend of mine who is very ill with ME/CFS has gone downhill markedly since starting Furhman’s restrictive diet 6 years ago.

          We’re not herbivores.

          1. Well said. My wife and I followed Furhman’s program for two years. Mainly looking for a solution for my wife’s isolated systolic hypertention. My wife was even seen by Dr. Fuhrman at his office for the cost of $500. We thought he would give her a personal protocol something designed more for her but he never ordered any blood tests or other tests and he had nothing to say that wasn’t already in his books even though her systolic blood pressure was 205 while in his office. Sorry but I don’t consider that to be a great doctor. Waste of money and waste of time. She has found a solution since then and for the past two years her blood pressure has been normal after following Morley Robbins Root Cause Protocol.

          2. I agree we’re not herbivores, not carnivores, either. We’re frugivores (fruit, root, veggie). Our jaws move sideways, while true omnivores like dogs and bears only move up and down. The fact we ate so much variety is likely due to our wide ranging travel and migration; we’re everywhere. But for the longest time we were like the chimps, our closest relative in what we ate, 23 million years, not 2.5 paleo period. Not much changed over the 23. Our gut is 9 times body length, while omnivores is 3. You can’t give a dog heart disease with fatty meat, but a series of chimps fed like that died in under a year from it. We last longer, but are not proof against it.

            Off-topic, I don’t do all of what Fuhrman says, just the nutrient attentiveness. His diet, to me, restricts calories too much for the sake of micronutrient load maximization. I think that’s good for about 6 months, after which the body’s probably saturated and has shed the extra pounds. Now what? At that point, compensation has been reached for nutrients, so now you need to work out how you’ll get your calories, macronutrient load.

            Take my case, a bad calcium score for motivation 579 three years ago. My doc offered a cardiologist, I asked for 6 weeks. Did Dr. Esselstyn’s diet with an eye to Fuhrman’s micronutrient rating scale (ANDI), used by Whole Foods. Esselstyn’s video on youtube “Treating the Cause…” will explain why his diet and the success rates in human trials over many years. I’m not saying this is for everyone, it was the best track record against what I’ve got. If I become a McDougal, just shoot me. He needs a good hot meal ala grandma. I think compensation to correct dietary problems then readjusting things for a good balance makes the most sense. I think the mind will clear up and some people may find themselves pissing others off, so they should watch out not to be upsetting. I have found my depression/anxiety has improved over the 3 years, but not assuming that’s going on forever, it could be compensation effects. I always try to self-examine and revue. In order to get my stuff right, I use the nitric oxide remedies of Prendergast, Rainer Boger, and research of Dr. Robert Vogel, U of Md on FMD (flow mediated dilatation) saying which foods restrict and which promote it. That way, if I need something not on my Esselstyn diet, I can take some of that technology with the meal to guard against the effects. I believe some animal product on a very irregular basis might offer benefits, however, as a steady diet (something nature never anticipated) it seems to encourage bad bacteria that produce TMA, which the liver oxidizes to TMA0, which directly causes coronary artery disease. It takes about 2 weeks for the bacteria to become established, as tested on vegans who were given steak every day for 2 weeks (anything in the name of science). I’m not vegan, but get splashed a bit by the similarities. Anyway, my fight is deadly and highly motivating that much is for sure, and so is that of lots of others.

            Prendergast is interesting in that he used a blend of arginine and citrulline, but not much citrulline, that was wrong. Rainer Boger (dir of pharmacology U of Hamburg) found by experiment that a ratio by weight of 2 arg: 1 cit resulted in the largest rise in blood levels of arginine. But even with Prendergast’s inferior formula, which resulted in his patients taking a big dose, about 4 times what’s needed if the 2:1 ratio is used, he still got 20 years with 7000 patients, 80 percent with diabetes, having NO admissions, means no heart problems. That is unheard of. To dismiss that would be insane, I’m using it. My blood pressure is usually 110/70, and some of that probably comes from the arg/cit mixture I make for myself. It will take a combination of things to roll back what I did the first 70 years at the table, if it can be done at all.

          3. @NevadaSmith, i am really sorry to hear that. It was not what i expected.So thanks for the info.
            i am happy the Morley Robbins advices worked out for her high blood pressure. I know a lot of diets do not work for everybody. I agree on a lot with Fuhrman and colleagues cause i see a lot of lifestyle related cancers and diseases- the big lines-, but then again it obviously does not work for each and every person. I agree with the big lines, not with all. For instance being dutch i have a hard time leaving out butter like now, if the cows are outside eating fresh grass it must contain K2 and lots of other goodies. So much religion and dogmas, maybe in 20- 50 years food will be highly customized to individual patterns/ genes. Thats what i expect, but i am not sure. I also recognize that in a lot of more neurological issues the ‘good’ fatty acids are really important, and those tend to be pretty low on certain diets, especially on WFPB diets. Anyway i have a hard time connecting Weston A Price ( the man himself not the modern adepts of it with lots and lots of meat and fat, ) and people like Fuhrman, I know they both are right on a lot- in their own right-. Anyway fat soluble vitamins are important, thats why we are on this page.
            Who knows the role of pollution, plastics, hormone disruptors, obesogens and thousands of other chemicals we are exposed to daily?
            Fact is almost all those substances are fat soluble. I sometimes wonder if that might be part of the puzzle explaining why WFPB and no oil brings down so much diseases( but not all). The more up the food chain, the more pollution,
            I will look into Morley robbins, i know too little of him.

          4. Tanta celeuma e de complicado, é tão simples.
            Vitaminas A, D, e K1 e K2 , E,…sim, SIM! mas sem magnésio as enzimas não funcionam. ” A alimentação dita ocidental tem 10 vezes mais Cálcio que o Magnésio necessário para o metabolizar”. Veja J. Durlach, M. Sircus, Masterjohn, Univ. Tufts, W. Price e muitos outros e, a prazo, constatando os resultados que isso traz. Só com a adição de uma pitada de Mg (600mgx70%=420mg)diário, as outras já funcionam bem melhor. Ele é determinante. Eu curei-me depois de 4 episódios de enfarte. Com 6 stent, andei perto de entregar a alma ao Criador!
            Para anedota pode ser, viver sem a K2 da gordura animal. Mas hilariante mesmo, pode ser, depois de procurá-la, a seguir destruí-la com varfarina e sucedâneos; sem o Mg, a A e a K, como o cálcio não vai para onde faz falta, forma placa nos vasos; depois é correr atrás do prejuízo, pôr ancas de platina, a calcificação dos átrios cardíacos, ‘curar’ o enfarte, medicamentos para contrariar as defesas do sistema, tensão alta, diabetes a prazo… ah! ironia, mas mantendo a aterosclerose. Interessante, não é?!
            Depois de 6 meses de desmame aos medicamentos , ganhei-lhe o jeito. Acho que percebi. VIVO há vários anos sem qualquer droga , sem queixas, colesterol total 254, nem dietas especiais. O meu cardiologista até podia por as mãos na cabeça… mas eu nem vou lá, faz mais de 3 anos!
            Acho que perdi os stent. Ao fim de 1 ano deixei de os sentir, mas não esqueço, todos os dias, 300 + 300 mgr na água.

  78. Hi
    I love your podcasts and vitamin emails; thank you so much for your devotion to helping others. Question, I am presently taking a Vitamin K2, (Relentless Improvement). It has 15,000 mcg of MK-4 (12.500%), and 60 mcg of MK-7(50%). 1 serving size. In your email and on your website under Vitamin K, you mention taking 100- 200 mcg. You mention on your website if I don’t get K from enough foods you recommend getting closer to 200 mcg. I have osteoporosis, and kidney stones. ( Not kidney disease) and probably need the 200 mcgs. I am not on any other medications, & my bones have remained stable for 1 year since my last bone density test. My bottle says “15,000 mcgs of MK-4), which is very different from the 200 mcgs you are recommending. I thought it was strange so I wanted to ask should I stop taking this vitamin? Or am I not reading the numbers correctly. Please I would appreciate your advise. Thank you so much.

    1. I’d like to let you new about a new vitamin K2 product (vK2). It contains pharmaceutical grade MK4 (5mg) + MK7 (100mcg).

      If the brand of Vitamin K2 you take is NOT yellow, then its not pharmaceutical grade and probably contains Chinese ingredients.

      Do you believe Relentless label claims? for their price, i think it is very doubtful

      1. The capsule is yellow in color. There are so many vitamin companies not sure what to believe. However, I do trust Dr. Masterjohn and his responses as I have been watching and learning and researching for some time. I was concerned with how much is okay to take and it seems like 15,000 mcg of MK-4 is much higher than Dr. Masterjohn would recommend. Just want to make sure I am not hurting myself in some way. I liked the product because it has clean fillers. But would buy elsewhere if these are too high in dose.

      2. What is the make of this new brand Eric? if it is ‘vk2’ then it is a poor choice…nobody will be able to find it online…
        Also how come the pharmaceutical grades are (always?) yellow

        1. Yes, Brenda the Product name is vK2, which can be found on Amazon by searching for vK2. It is distributed by NHS Global Distributors (

          The MK-4 we use is pharmaceutical grade, meaning pure (The assay specification is 98% – 102% with the current lot test value = 100.6% by HPLC ) and the MK-7 is in a 1% potency (with 99% Microcrystalline Cellulose)

          The pharmaceutical raw materials, must be cold stored (turns into liquid if over 100.2 f) They are not only expensive, but must also be shipped to our lab in a cold shipping engine, which adds an additional expense.

          The raw materials are VERY yellow, but are not stable until “cut” with microcrystalline cellulose, which results in a temperature stable yellow (but more pale yellow than the uncut raw material)

          The less pure (or more cut) the material, the less yellow it is

      3. Hi Eric,

        I do like the product you recommended, looks promising and the reason for it as described on your website I am familiar with. VK-2. My dr has me on 2000 IU of Vitamin D3, not 5000. And she is not ready to increase my dosage. So with this in mind; your K would be too high of a dose for me. I really appreciated your insight and info on this vitamin K; but need to find one that fits my regime with the amount of vitamin D I take. Still looking for a better Vit K2- with MK-7.

        1. Hi Janet,
          Your doctor is ignorant of vitamin D3 requirements. She is a trained ambulance chaser not a health practitioner or nutritionist. 5,000 IU Vitamin D3 along with 300 micrograms K2 and 5,000 IU natural vitamin A is necessary for prevention of a host of age related diseases. Among these are arthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, stenosis, cancer, bone spurs, dementia…. Medical schools do not teach health and nutrition. Medical students are taught that they pop out of the box knowing everything there is to know. They do not read for improvements in the state of the art. They never learn. My advice is to find a conscientious nutritionist or Nurse Medical Practitioner to guide you. You can also read the literature and YouTube for expert science behind the combination of Vitamins K2, A, D3. Doctor Chris Masterjohn is an excellent resource.

        2. Hi Janet, Sorry for my delay in responding, i did see your comment till just now.

          I’m not sure why your doctor is recommending such a low dose of vitamin D3, but regardless, there is no harm in taking more vitamin K2

  79. Hi! Thank you for this awesome resource! I’m wondering what your thoughts are on the Just Thrive K2 supplement. Consider adding it to the review above? Thank you!

  80. My 15 year old daughter has been diagnosed with pcos I don’t want her to be in the birth control pills all her life she is not fat and her sugar levels are normal. I would like to know more about vitamin K2 and how this vitamin can help with the pcos. I think this condition or syndrome has been for many many decades and very little to nothing has been done to help or cure it.

    1. Look into iodine for pcos, the fertility Friday podcast on YouTube has an interview with dr Jorge fleachas about it.

  81. I had a Calcium scan done and got a score of 46. So I started taking 320mcg of Vitamin K2-7 a day because I read it will help reduce the calcium build up in your blood vessels. I have been taking them for a month and in the last week my stool has gone from dark to blond color or very light beige if you will. Is the K2-7 causing this color change and should I been concerned?

    1. Are you also taking Vitamin D3? I hope Dr. Masterjohn will answer you as he is more knowledgeable.

  82. Curious about a comment in the content of this article that suggested MK-4 might be best for distribution…or lack thereof…in soft tissues. Would that indicate MK-4 could be of more benefit for arterial health (preventing calcium/plaque buildup) than MK-7?

    1. More research needs to be done in this area, but my money is on mk4 as that is the animal-sourced component and makes more sense evolutionarily to me. I’ve experimented with mk4 and mk7 over the last 3 yrs and I have visibly better results with mk4 (teeth and skin). I have been very consistent with my intake.

      1. Doesn’t it make just as much sense whether you are looking at it from an evolutionary standpoint or not?

  83. I am taking CV meds. Metoprolol,Losartan, Clopidogrel and Atorvastatin. Is it ok to take k2 and what do you think a safe dose would be? I would also like to take coq10, any thoughts on that? Thank you, Chris jensen

  84. Greetings, do you have commentary on, or could you comment on the relationship of K2 to any decrease in calcium in the brain? Previous to K2 supplementation along with increased consumption of olive oil and the probiotic bifidobacterium infantis, (a microbe known for producing seretonin) my 77 yr old mother was experiencing full on episodes of Alzheimer’s-like agitation and disordered thinking, ( logic-splices, child-like Behavior,etc) approximately every third day on average over the course of 2 months. After beginning her supplementation of the above mentioned items she has experienced only 1 episode as described above in the two months following this new protocol, and that one episode occurred within the first two weeks of beginning the protocol. I’m happy to add that mom is back to laughing at jokes again. Btw, She takes meds only for thyroid and blood pressure.

    Craving more knowledge here, thank you for your informative and very helpful website.


    1. Hi Jamie, like yourself I would like to know more. Interesting about bifidobacterium infantis. I am hypothyroid and take calcium supplements and have wondered about the effect on the brain as well.

    1. I’d like to let you new about a new vitamin K2 product (vK2). It contains pharmaceutical grade MK4 (5mg) + MK7 (100mcg).

      If the brand of Vitamin K2 you take is NOT yellow, then its not pharmaceutical grade and probably contains Chinese ingredients.

      Do you believe Relentless label claims? for their price, i think it is very doubtful

    2. The capsule is yellow in color. There are so many vitamin companies not sure what to believe. I do trust Dr. Masterjohn and his response. I was concerned with how much is okay to take and it seems like 15,000 mcg of MK-4 is much higher than Dr. Masterjohn would recommend.

      1. vk2 has 5mg of MK4 and 100mcg of MK7

        i just dont see how its possible to sell what Relentless alleges to contain for their price

  85. Great read. My mom has high levels of aortic and mitral valve calcification as well as arterial. It is symptomatic now, and I have her on 150 micrograms of MK-7 but wondering if we can help her better with a full spectrum product. We only have a few months to test this, since doctors want to operate and she doesn’t want that. What is your opinion on fastest way to remove the calcification? Thanks so much for your response.

  86. Thank you for a very informative explanation of vitamin K2.
    I gather from reading this information that it is better to make use of BOTH
    MK4 and MK7. I use the Thorne Research MK4 ( 1 drop = 1mg) and take 1 drop
    three times a day. Am I taking too much?
    Would it be beneficial for me to also take 200mcg of MK7 as
    well. I am 69 years old (female) and have osteoporosis. My daily calcium intake
    is 1200mg.

    Thanks ……….

  87. Thanks so very much for the great informative information. What I really really want to know is which K2 supplement you take!

  88. Is there any research on transdermal absorption of K2?

    I have been squeezing the contents of gel capsules containing mostly K1 and k2 at a rate of about 300 – 400 mcg per day (half k1 and half k2( mostly MK-4 with less than 15 mcg of MK-7) and applying to wrists, knees and soles of feet on alternate days. I don’t know how this converts to international units, or how much is absorbed into my system, nor whether this is a good proportion to keep calcium moving into my bones and not in my arteries. The water in my area is very high in calcium and low in magnesium.
    Since each capsule contains over 2000 mcg of combined K, I wished to reduce the amount taken at one time to a reasonable level.

  89. I have to take K1 to balance the Warfarin I take for a heart valve. I run 2.5 INR b y adjusting my eating of greens. I’ve learned to cheat by eating spinach for two days prior to a test. I could find nothing on K2 impact on INR.

    I knew that K1 is water soluble and only in your body for 8 to 12 hours before getting peed out or sweated out. I reasoned that left 12 to 16 hours without K1. K2 is oil based (and ferment & meat). This stays in the body for 3 to 5 days. This left the issue of interference with the Warfarin.

    So I tested it. I kept the K1 level while consuming a lot of K2-M7. The results are that there is NO impact on the INR or Warfarin. I now take K2 every other day, figuring that each cap is active for 3’s been working fine for 6 months. I’ve tried as much as 5x everyday without any effect of the INR.

    So only leafy green veggies effect the K! and INR. A heavy dose of K!1 Is gone in half a day with half of the Warfarin untreated. Therefore the Leafy greens should be eaten at least twice a day. This is while the K2 can be effective for 3-4 days. The general suggested dose of K2 is 2 caps a day. This results of 8 cap active in the body unless spaced out. It will also activate any beans eaten, with pronounced fermentation.

    1. I am on warfarin because after a spinal cord injury 6.5 years ago I have quadriplegia and now have a propensity for blood clots. I recently started supplementing vitamin K2 mk7 ( doctors best MenaQ7) at 200 µg per day and my INR dropped and I had to raise my warfarin level about 15%. I am planning to add in MK4 to see what effects it has.

  90. I take NATURE PLUS Vitamin K2. It has MK-7 only. Do you recommend both MK7 and MK4. Are is this supplement a good supply of Vitamin K2 without having to take a MK-4?

  91. getting intoxicated from eating liver every day ?
    which liver beef or chicken or else ?
    guess wasn’t grass fed liver was it ”
    how did you trace the toxicity direct exclusive to the liver eating ?

  92. Chris, outstanding work! As a lifelong student of nutrition and wellness I realize I have learned nothing about the importance of Vitamin K2, until now. Thank you, this has opened up entirely new avenues of thought.

  93. Hello, Dr. Masterjohn,

    I recently gave birth to my first child (I’m 25). He has a bad overbite, which has really surprised me given my consumption of vitamin K2. I’ve been eating two eggs a day basically all my life and drinking raw milk for a few years. During the pregnancy around 4-5 months I began eating four eggs a day, beef liver once a week, and a liter of raw milk daily. Before even getting pregnant I had started 200 mcg of vitamin K2 MK7. I’d also been taking 5000 mcg of vitamin A because of a vitamin D-induced deficiency as it seemed to me. In the end I think I overdid the vitamin A… my skin has reacted strangely.

    I’m wondering how this could have happened? Could excess vitamin A have interfered? Was it more likely a problem of fat malabsorption? Could the supplement I took be a scam? Here is the link:

    I really appreciate any help. I wonder if there is a way to develop his jaw better from here. Should I try increasing the drops to 400 mcg? Thank you.

    1. Hi Casey,

      I hope you don’t mind my thoughts on this.

      It’s quite normal for a baby to have a slightly retruded mandible. As they develop, the mandible should grow in a forward and upward direction – so it usually corrects itself if conditions are right for it to do so. Of course, there’s always a chance that it’s currently outside what is considered normal – you’d need someone to look at it and give a diagnosis.

      There are multiple factors that influence facial and jaw development. Including: the action of breastfeeding, breathing and nutrition.

      The position and actions of muscles and positioning of the tongue have a huge impact on jaw and tooth position. Breastfeeding encourages the proper function of these structures.

      A recessed mandible can be influenced by mouth breathing. As a general rule, all of us should be breathing through the nose with a pair of sealed lips, including babies. (Unless you have a cold!) If a baby is mouth breathing then this should be investigated and corrected.

      Nutrition sets up the baby to perform these things (above) in the best way possible.

      May I recommend that you check out Dr Steven Lins website. He’s a dentist with an interest in nutrition and development and his website is a fantastic resource. I often refer my patients to check out his info.


      1. Teresa,

        Thanks for your reply. I did read on a site about breastfeeding that most babies have an underbite. That’s interesting yet strange. I hope my baby’s bad latch, which I need to get taken care of, isn’t affecting his development.

        I agree about mouth breathing. He has his mouth open often but I don’t think he’s actually breathing through it.

        1. Hi there,

          A bad latch can often be caused by cranial and cervical dysfunction. I’ve treated a number of babies over the years who had latching difficulties and they were easily resolved With a little bit of cranial work. My infant cranial teacher is Carol Gray and she lives in Portland Oregon her website has a list of practitioners that she has trained.

          My buddy Michael Hahn practice is in Seattle and he has treated a ton of babies over the years with all sorts of difficulties like Latching difficulties and torticollis and sleep issues issues and reflux and much more.

          It can certainly be worth having your baby evaluated because at this age many things can be fixed really easily.

  94. How does Vitamin K2 work with Proteolytic Enzymes and can they supplement together. How does Vitamin K2 work well with Vitamin D 3?

  95. Hello Chris, Great article! Thank you for writing this.

    I have a very limited diet because I have TMJ disorder (arthritis of the jaw joint) and this makes eating and chewing very difficult.

    Currently, my only source of Vitamin K1 is organic hemp seeds and organic Barley Grass powder. And my only source of Vitamin K2 is a Multivitamin supplement containing MK-7 (soy-free) and organic grass fed ghee.

    I have some dental problems, including slightly bleeding gums and slightly eroded enamel, and slight teeth sensitivity and reduced saliva. Many dentists believe this can be caused by Vitamin K2 deficiency.

    I therefore want to buy a new supplement to increase my Vitamin K2 intake.

    Which product would you buy if you were me? The Life Extension Super K, or the Innovix Labs Full Spectrum Vitamin K2?

    Note: Life Extension have recently changed their formula. Their product now contains 100mcg of MK-7 which is 100% in the trans form. I emailed them and they confirmed it is 100% trans MK-7. You can see the new formulation here:

    I look forward to your reply.

    Thank you so much in advance,

    Tom White.

    1. Hi Tom,

      I hope you don’t mind my 2 cents’. I’m a dental hygienist so your comment caught my eye ☺️

      I personally use Thorne Research’s combination D3/K2 supplement. It’s liquid and comes in a dropper bottle which means you can add it easily to a cup of water etc.

      I have no comment on if it’s better or worse than any competing brands but my understanding is that Thorne are high quality.

      All the best.

      1. Thank you Teresa. I have decided to purchase the Life Extension product.

        I was familiar with the Thorne product you mentioned.

        Generally speaking, I like to buy individual nutrient supplements so I can monitor my symptoms, health and test result levels, and then “tweak” the dosages as required.

        I have previously taken the more expensive Thorne MK-4 without the D3, and noticed some positive improvements.

        On this occassion, I have elected to go for the full spectrum Vitamin K product by Life Extension purely because I want to minimise the amount of capsules and tablets I am taking currently, which is at least 10 or 15 different supplements.

        If I am dissatisfied with the results from the life extension product after 2 to 4 weeks, I will take a different product.

        Thank you again for your comment.

        Take care.

      1. Thanks for your reply. I have read the full supplement review section twice.

        However, I would specifically like to know which Vitamin K supplement you would take if you were in my situation, and had to eat a very limited diet due to a jaw joint disorder, chronic facial pain and many food allergies/intolerances. I will be addressing these issues and getting treatment for them, but the treatment will be slow and the recovery journey will be long.

        In the meantime, I have purchased the Life Extension Super K product because I get very little Vitamin K1 from my diet (approx 119mcg per day).

        I’m currently taking 2 capsules per day of the Life Extension Super K. If I am unhappy with the results in 2 to 3 weeks, I am thinking of buying the Innovix Labs product and take 1 or 2 capsules of the Innovix labs per day, instead of the Life Extension Super K. Would you do the same thing as me? If not, what would you do instead and which Vitamin K supplement would you try next?

        Thank you in advance,

        Tom White.

  96. Hi,
    I have been on statins for over 20 years ever since my cholesterol was about 200 and my ratio was low . I exercise regularly, eat low-fat, nutritional foods. I did drink alcohol regularly until I quit 5 years ago. I never smoked. I had regular lifeline screenings that never showed any plaque build-up until some minimal build-up recently at the age of 60. I got tested and my calcium score is 800. My grandfather and father both clogged up and my grandfather passed from major heart attack at 60. I have seen 2 cardiologists and they have ran several tests which were all negative and their recommendation is to increase my statins from 10 mg to 40 mg daily. They say that the calcium has repaired and hardened coronary soft plaque deposits which is better than having soft plaque deposits that could break off. Also calcium scores are based on the fact that normal plaque is about 20% calcium and a person that takes statins has a higher percentage of calcium in their plaque which should mean that the calcium score of a statin user is effectively much lower than calculated. I started taking 2 daily doses of 50 ug of mk4.

    The bottom line question that cardiologists do not want to entertain is can K2 usage actually soften my coronary hardened plaque deposits and turn them into a dangerous softer consistency and allow them to break off. I believe I have an inherited lipid disorder from my grandfather who probably died from soft plaque rupturing and giving him a heart attack.

    1. Per Dr. Wm Castelli, of Framingham Heart Study, via Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn, of Cleveland Clinic: when the soft plaque begins to break up, the body pitches in some extra calcium to help stabilize it.

      I got a score of 579 abt 3 years ago, and took up Dr. Esselstyn’s diet since he’s the only one with 100 percent results if you do his diet his way, not your version of his way. It isn’t easy but it does work. Even my ED has been breaking up and my doc has me on zero meds, he’s onboard since all the test results are better than any drugs he could use. Calcium hasn’t been shown to be a vitamin k2 problem, it may contribute, but just taking big doses of K2 hasn’t seemed to work all by itself. I am using the diet, exercise, Arginine-citrulline in 2:1 ratio about 5gr total twice a day, and nitrate/nitrite orally per the book “The Nitric Oxide Solution” by Dr. Nathan Bryan. There are good reasons for all of these things, I don’t F around, I want human interventional trials that worked on everyone to prevent-reverse heart attack, stroke, and death from heart disease. Period. Esselstyn has it, others don’t. It’s just a bit of a tough diet at first, then it’s not that hard as it seems. The arginine is based on Dr. Joe Prendergast who got great results on his diabetic patients, no admissions in 20 years, over 7000 patients. The nitrate/nitrite solution, well read the book. Good luck to you, keep your standards high about proof, and see these things I’ve mentioned. One more thing, I do take K2 in about 500u/day in MK7, plus 25mg/MK4 and K1 as well in one single pill a day from Koncentrated-K vitamins. It is very cost effective for the dose. Like I say, I doubt by itself it will do Jack, but more of K2 isn’t going to dislodge soft plaque, the body will not let that happen, so long as your diet doesn’t give the body the building blocks of plaque, like it is in your case, most probably. You’d have to see and become convinced of Esselstyn’s diet and the need for it, don’t pay too much heed to doctors telling you “you
      ‘re fine” etc. Pay attention to Esselstyn, and live. See the video: “Treating the Cause…Esselstyn” on youtube. It is 90 minutes long and tells the whole story. Best of luck. Bob

    2. There are actually three problems here. One is if the plaque is calcified, two is if there is a soft blockage, and three is if the body is repairing the damage faster than it happens.
      The calcification of the arteries is regarded by some experts as the most important and accurate indicator of a future heart condition. More calcification means more area of the arteries involved in artery disease. Medical opinions that calcium hardens plaque and makes it safe is a guess that runs counter to the statistics on calcification. The calcification is actually bone tissue growing in the arteries where it should not be.
      The calcification can be reversed by adding a few nutrients. The MK4 form of vitamin K2 is specific to making the Matric GLA Proteins work to stop the calcification and reverse its formation. Its also advisable to take 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 daily as this boost the Matrix GLA protein that the MK4 works with. Including 20,000 IU of retinol vitamin A is also advisable as this helps in forming the proteins to do this. While you can try use of MK7 vitamin K2, its not normally present in the body and the body makes its own MK4 for this function when we are young and healthy. This rate of production drops off with age, thus the need for a supplement.
      The soft deposits in the arteries are a separate problem. These are reversed by boosting arginine and citruline intake which enables the interior of the artery to protect its thin lining of cells. There is an old reference on how to do this in a book by Dr Louis Ignarro who discovered the function of nitric oxide in the body but newer references should be good. He included items like Alpha Lipoic Acid, CoEnzyme Q10, and natural vitamin E with the gamma form in it. I found that my blockages responded to 4-6 grams of arginine and this was separate from any calcification. I also found that adding the arginine took 25 points off my blood pressure, bringing it back to normal.

        1. After being unable to get a diagnosis out of my PCP, I looked over everything on cardiac disease and the symptoms available in 2005. I was already taking many of the nutrients known helpful in heart disease. A book by Dr Louis Ignarro, No More Heart Disease suggested adding these and Arginine and Citruline. Within 20-30 minutes of taking 4 grams of arginine there was a measurable reduction in blood pressure. Since arginine is a component of connective tissue, over six months there was a reduction of 25 points in blood pressure to normal, probably due to larger arteries being formed. During this time my training speed in 6.5 mile runs went up by 8%.
          One of the medical references had this report of a 2% death rate for patients treated with arginine. These patients were people with prior clotting events and arginine stimulates the immune system making immune generated clotting events more possible in simplistic or careless trials. I’d never had any clotting events so this was safe for me to try. Others have argued that this medical test was not valid due to the form of arginine used.
          So no blockage measurements, but increased performance and a complete reduction of blood pressure from 145/80 to 122/70. The arginine also improved a number of minor foot tendon strains in a 53 year old male. I’ve repeatedly found over the years that lowering my arginine intake results in rising blood pressure.

          1. Well done, David. I take arginine-citrulline in 2:1 by weight twice daily about 5gr each dose. Thousands of cases exist for the type of things we are seeing with it. Dr. Joe Prendergast has the proof in his endocrinology practice with diabetics in which their heart disease issues vanished over 20 years, over 7000 of them. Amazing. In my case, I also got a blood test for ADMA done by mail to a lab in Germany. ADMA is an arginine antagonist which competes against it for the enzyme eNOS. By upping blood arginine levels this can be overcome. Not all people have it but if you’re getting a big boost from arginine, it’s 90 percent likely you have high ADMA too. People with low ADMA don’t get as much benefit from arginine as those with high. High ADMA is often a death sentence unless arginine is used properly and continuously. It’s partly a genetic thing, I think. best, Bob

      1. we are still waiting for any good human trials that show K2 reverses coronary calcium. Calcium is only 20 percent of plaque. If diet can remove soft plaque by 20 percent and calcium in the process grows 20 percent, due to the body throwing in some calcium for stability, I think you’re way ahead. No evidence yet shows that arginine-citrulline removes anything, though it may make blood flow better and arteries smoother due to nitric oxide. It may reduce the tendency for new plaque to form, but we don’t see that it will remove anything. Even the rat studies just showed nitrites in the drinking water only prevented, not reversed plaque in rats fed a highly atherogenic, high cholesterol diet.
        Diet has shown the ability to reverse plaque, however, see Esselstyn’s photos of angiograms of plaque reversals in his patients. I’m not saying anything is impossible, just that we don’t have real evidence you can reverse plaques of any kind with just supplements while ignoring an atherogenic diet of cholesterol and saturated fat. Removing saturated fat and cholesterol and eating whole plant foods has shown that effect, without supplements, so it makes sense that be the cornerstone of any serious attempt at reversing heart disease, and probably essential to preventing its progress, with or without supplements.

  97. In your review of K2 supplements you state, “While the label recommends a daily dose of 45 drops, this is based on studies using pharmacological doses to treat osteoporosis.”
    My primary interest is in supplementing with K2 to treat osteoporosis and have read a couple of articles that recommend 45 mg of K2. There appears to be no clinical data on the effectiveness of doses between the 100-200 mcg for general health and the 45,000 mcg for osteoporosis (and no explanation as to why 45 mg is magic). And, although I believe that K1 is more specifically involved in blood clotting, I suspect that there could be some conversion of K2 to K1 which at osteoporosis treatment dose levels might not be negligible.

  98. Chris, thank you for your research and for so generously making it and yourself available.

    My question is specific to a supplement that I am considering taking for osteoporosis (as well as general heart/arterial health), rather than succumbing to the doc’s suggestions for injections of a now-popularly-pushed anti-osteoporosis pharmaceutical drug with possibilities of some serious side effects (no thank you!). The supplement I am considering is: 8X Strength Natural Vitamin K2 Formula. Provides 4-in-1 Support with MK-7, MK-4, K1 and D3 with Maximum Absorption for Stronger Bones and Cardiovascular Health 60 Capsules
    by One Elevated. My concern is “should I be” 😉 concerned by the divulgence when one reads really thoroughly on Amazon’s descriptions, that it contains “trace amounts of lead”. I have always understood that lead is cumulative, can’t easily be chelated. The flip side of this is that there certainly is lead in our natural environment. Is it your opinion that one should be concerned by supplements that disclose “trace amounts” of lead, or, are they simply doing due diligence whereas, perhaps, other companies might not be so forthcoming in their disclosures and have “trace amounts of lead”, as well?

    Thank you for your response.
    Best regards — Suzanne-Marie

    1. This might be related to California’s laws? I once went to a restaurant in a nice hotel in California where there was a sign saying “Warning: This restaurant uses ingredients known to the state of California to cause cancer.” I’d ask the company about it and see what it compares to for things you consume every day.

      1. Thanks, Chris. That was my conjecture. I appreciate your suggestion; I’ll call company if I feel I need more info; thinking not! I’m “fine enough”, I’m sure.

  99. I am seeing sublingual K2 suplements . I like the idea, as I have absorption issues due to partial gastrectomy. I need to take K2 as part of my fight against osteoporosis. What is your opinion on getting proper absorption of K2 with a chewable, and/or sublingual supplement?

  100. Yesterday I saw a You Tube video [in French with English subtitles] that was a testimonial of a gentleman who had leukemia and was given months to live. Long story short, he began eating natto among other things and his leukemia eventually went away.

    I’m wondering how much and how often eating natto would be suggested? He also too D3 which is something I would not do. Studiesseem to show that retinol would be just as effective along with magnesium which is required for the body to make its own D3. I take Rosita Extra Virgin cod liver oil which provides retinol and natural D. Seems to me natto is the best source for K2 as it also provides needed minerals.

  101. Hi Chris,
    You said that your Thorne K2 drops last you three years; I have a bottle of the Thorne D & K2 drops that only had about a year shelf life. Is it safe to take after it’s expired?

    1. Yeah I’m not sure. I’d ask the company. Next update I’ll revise the text to reflect the expiration date.

  102. I’ve been taking D3, K2, zinc, boron and magnesium for one year. A year ago a Mayo Clinic surgeon said my CT showed the second most wide spread inflammation he’d have ever seen. My recent CT shows no inflammation. I use . I believe their K supplements give the best bang for the buck. It cost more but you get 25 times more K2-mk4 than the others. Can I have permission to copy your prints.